Presentation on theme: "Work-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance."— Presentation transcript:
Work-Related Attitudes Job Satisfaction and Work Behaviors High levels of job satisfaction do not necessarily lead to high job performance.
Work-Related Attitudes Organizational Commitment An attitude that reflects an individual’s identification with and attachment to an organization. Organizational Commitment and Work Behaviors Employee commitment strengthens with an individual’s age, years with the organization, sense of job security, and participation in decision making. Committed employees have highly reliable habits, plan a longer tenure with the organization, and muster more effort in performance.
Affect and Mood in Organizations Researchers have recently started to focus interest on the affective component of attitudes. Research now suggests that there are underlying stable predisposition’s toward fairly constant and predictable moods and emotional states. Positive Affectivity: a relatively stable tendency to be upbeat and optimistic, to have a sense of well being, and to see things in a positive light. Negative Affectivity: a relatively stable tendency to be downbeat and pessimistic and to see things in a negative light.
Perception and Perceptual Processes Perception The set of processes by which an individual becomes aware of and interprets information
Perception and Attribution Perception is also closely linked with another process called Attribution. Attribution is a mechanism through which we observe behavior and then attribute causes to it. Attribution occurs as a result of consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness.
Perception and Attribution Ways in Which Attributions Are Formed: Consensus—the extent to which other people in the same situation behave the same way. Consistency—the extent to which the same person behaves the same way at different times. Distinctiveness—the extent to which the same person behaves the same way in other situations.
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective Developed by Victor Vroom Suggests that motivation depends on two things: How much we want something and How likely we think we are to get it
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective Model of Motivation Suggests that motivation leads to effort, when combined with ability and environmental factors, that results in performance which, in turn, leads to various outcomes that have value (valence) to employees.
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective Theory is based on four basic assumptions. Behavior is determined by a combination of forces in the individual and in the environment. People make decisions about their own behavior in organizations. Different people have different types of needs, desires, and goals. People choose among alternatives of behaviors in selecting one that that leads to a desired outcome.
Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective Elements Effort to performance expectancy is the probability that effort will lead to high performance Performance to outcome expectancy is the perception that performance leads to a specific outcome Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance Valence is how much a particular outcome is valued
The Expectancy Model of Motivation Environment MotivationEffortPerformance Ability Outcome Valence OutcomeValence OutcomeValence
Porter-Lawler Extension Assumptions: If performance in an organization results in equitable and fair rewards, people will be more satisfied. High performance can lead to rewards and high satisfaction. Types of rewards: Extrinsic rewards—outcomes set and awarded by external parties (e.g., pay and promotions). Intrinsic rewards—outcomes that are internal to the individual (e.g., self-esteem and feelings of accomplishment).
Porter-Lawler Extension A Process Perspective Performance Intrinsicrewards(outcomes) Extrinsicrewards(outcomes) PerceivedequitySatisfaction Performance
Porter-Lawler Extension of Expectancy Theory Intrinsic rewards (outcomes) Performance Perceived equity Satisfaction Extrinsic rewards (outcomes) Source: Edward E. Lawler III and Lyman W. Porter, “The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction,” Industrial Relations, October 1967, p. 23. Used with permission of the University of California.
Implications for Managers Managers must figure what the outcomes are wanted by each employee Determine performance levels needed to reach organizational goals Must link the outcomes and performance Look for conflicting expectancies and make sure rewards are large enough Make the system equitable to all