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Chapter 3 Kansas as a Crossroads

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1 Chapter 3 Kansas as a Crossroads
Invasion and Encounters

2 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish Came on horseback Wore metal helmets and chain mail Wealthy but wanted more Heard story about 7 cities of gold Lead him beyond New Mexico found no gold

3 Quivira Indian slave told Coronado the stories of Quivira
Wealthy city were common citizens ate on silver plates and were served from bowls of gold Came to Kansas in search of it with 40 men Encountered the Wichita where the only metal he found was a copper necklace worn by the Chief Returned to Mexico disappointed Lost his job in Spanish government Put on trial for mistreatment of Native peoples (guilty)

4 French Exploration of Kansas
French Explorers 100 yrs after Coronado visited the Wichita Came from Canada Louis Jolliet placed the names “Kansas” and “Missouri” on the map for the 1st time Never explored Kansas French came to persuade Indians who lived here to form trade relationships with the French not Spanish

5 Claude Charles Du Tisne
Sent to contact Comanche Comanche were very powerful Had horses which help control the pains Stole horses and mules to trade back to Spanish Captured those from other tribes to sell as slaves Failed to make contact with the Comanche Did contact Osage and the Pawnee Traded guns and ammo for info. Alarmed Spanish because neither wanted the other to have control of Kansas

6 Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont
4yrs after Du Tisne Sent to establish control of Kansas by relationship with Kansa and the Plains Apache Got the Plains Apache to agree to peace with other tribes Eventual the agreements fizzled because the French ran out of what the Indians wanted

7 Trading Kansas Europeans came and claimed Kansas as their own telling the tribes to swear allegiance to the monarchy or royal family Spain and France Traded Kansas back and forth with out consulting Natives Violation of sovereign rights- authority based on the power of government

8 Trading Kansas Cont. Ruled from afar
Spanish French Ruled from afar Were not allowed to trade guns and ammunition Lived among the natives Often married natives Were allowed to trade guns and ammunition

9 Trading Kansas Cont. Europeans brought extra tension
Natives stole from each other Sold each other into slavery Brought Diseases with them Smallpox Measles Whooping cough Influenza Entire villages dried up because of these diseases

10 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Kansas was part of Louisiana Purchase “The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River…and other river[s which] may offer the most direct…water connection across the continent” Establish relationship with Indians and record info about environment. Traveled mostly by boat

11 Zebulon Pike 1st to travel the plains by land Objectives
Return 50 Osage Peace between Osage and Kansa Relationship with Comanche with help of Pawnee Observe plants and animals Spain was not happy about this

12 Zebulon Pike: A Desert Unprepared for winter Pike was captured by Spain near the foot of the Rocky Mnts. Held for several months Documents were taken Journal was not found Described Kansas as a desert (p.52-53) Made people wonder if Kansas could be cultivated

13 Stephen H. Long Objective Traveled by steamboat
Map the southwestern portion of the plains Traveled by steamboat Never actually made it to Kansas because of mud. Some of his men were sent to KS He went on to Nebraska

14 Stephen H. Long Cont. 1st to publish a U.S. atlas with state and territorial maps Labeled KS the “Great Desert” “almost wholly unfit for cultivation, and of course uninhabitable by people depending on agriculture for their subsistence.” Influence U.S. settlement policy for years







21 Thirst for Land Westward expansion was encouraged for fear of European invasion Indian Removal Act Moved Indian Tribes in the East west of the Mississippi. Pres. Jackson felt Indians stood in the way of progress

22 Indian Relocation to Kansas
Even before the Removal Act, Kansas was considered a home for Indians from the east. Some Americans like Isaac McCoy did fight for the Indians Worried American influence would bring about the end of the Indian way of life Wanted to create an Indian state were Indians would assimilate and convert to Christianity

23 Emigrant Indian Experience
Assigned to reservations Relocation was difficult because every tribe was different. Hunters Farmers Traders A few even assimilated before removal All were forced to leave some by military force Because Kansas was unfamiliar many Native Americans did not survive in it.

24 Missionaries During Indian relocation only non-Indians in KS worked for the government or traveled with the tribe Missionaries Traders Indian agents

25 What Do You See?

26 What Do You See

27 Why the Difference?

28 Why the Difference?

29 Missionaries Cont. Set up schools Convert Indians
Teach vocational skills Mixed reactions from Indians and public Built by on reservation land Usually supported by government funds negotiated in a treaty Children often boarded at the school May goal was to Americanize the Indian child

30 Santa Fe Trail William Bucknell Trader from Missouri
Out of money and looking to avoid jail time for debts decided to haul goods from Kansas City to Santa Fe. Found a route that allowed for wagons not just pack mules

31 Santa Fe Trail cont. Important International trade route
William Walker Wyandotte Chief Rented warehouses in Independence, Missouri to store traded goods Hiram Young Former slave, bought his own freedom Became wealthy by building wagons Santa Fe Trail was a money maker for many One woman gave Becknell a $60 and received $900 back.

32 Oregon-California Trail
Purpose was to move people not goods Took emigrants 4-6 months to make the trip from Western Missouri to the West Coast Only other way west was by sea around South America which took 1 yr. 2,000 mile journey most of which had to be walked Used 4X10 box wagons. All supplies had to fit in the wagon Food supplies Four Sugar Salt Coffee Bacon Needed over 1,000 pounds of food for the trip and may people over packed there wagons and had to leave personal belongings on the side of the road.

33 Supply and Demand Supply Demand
More supply = lower prices Scarce supply = higher prices Demand High Demand= higher prices Low Demand= lower prices Farther traveled on the trail the higher prices were because supply was low and demand was high on many products.

34 American Indians and Emigrants on the Trails
More cases of cooperation between Native Americans and settlers than of attacks particularly in the early years of the trail Santa Fe trail in Kansas Passed through the homelands and hunting grounds of many tribes

35 American Indians and Emigrants on the Trails Cont.
Once traffic on trail began to disrupt Indian lives attacks began and Mexican and American military groups were sent to protect the wagons Oregon-CaliforniaTrail Most encounters were also peaceful Settlers would trade with Indians specifically in the case of shoes settlers could purchase moccasins form indian. Also stories of Indians helping to pull out stuck wagons and rounding up loose cattle for the settlers

36 Manifest Destiny Belief that the United States should span from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans. Land = potential wealth People desired to take freedom west, to acquire land, and to expand. In the first half of the 1800’s 4 million people followed this dream and moved west.

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