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The Louisiana Purchase

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1 The Louisiana Purchase
EQ: What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana Territory?

2 The Nation Looks West Westward settlement increase after Revolutionary War By 1800, more than 1 million settlers lived between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River Most Westward settlers were farmers They relied on the Mississippi River to ship crops to port of New Orleans Spain threatened to close Port of New Orleans to American ships. Americans made a treaty(Pinckney Treaty) with Spain in Treaty guaranteed the American’s right to ship good down the Mississippi River to New Orleans

3 The Nation Looks West Spain secretly gives the Louisiana Territory back to France 1801, Jefferson discovers the transfer of land between the two countries Jefferson alarmed by development, new ruler of France: Napoleon Bonaparte gave him cause to be alarmed Jefferson feared Napoleon would make France the dominant power in Europe as well as America If Napoleon controlled Louisiana, Westward expansion of the United States would be blocked.

4 Buying Louisiana In 1802, Spanish governor of Louisiana withdrew the right of Americans to ship their goods through New Orleans. Westerners wanted to wage war after affair (port blockade) Jefferson decided that the best approach would be to offer to purchase New Orleans from French Sent James Monroe to make a deal; Monroe also had the help of Robert Livingston Men were instructed to buy New Orleans and a territory to the east called West Florida

5 Buying Louisiana In Paris, the Americans discovered that Toussaint L’Ouverture had been waging a revolution against France in Haiti (their Caribbean colony). Without Haiti as a base, the French could not defend Louisiana in the event of an American War At the same time, tension between France and Britain was on the rise and war was looming; Napoleon need money to support war effort. France offer the US not only New Orleans, but the entire Louisiana Territory.

6 Buying Louisiana Livingston and Monroe agreed to purchase territory stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada and from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. Purchase an amazing bargain for the US Cost 15 million ~ 4 cent an acre Doubled the size of the country Gave US millions of unexplored, fertile land Gave US control of Mississippi

7 Jefferson’s Dilemma The Constitution does not state that a President has the power to purchase land from a foreign country Jefferson reasoned that the Constitution allowed the President to make treaties, in order for purchase Congress approved the sale as a treaty and land was quickly paid for.

8 Lewis and Clark Explore the West
Even before purchase of the Louisiana Territory, Jefferson convinced Congress to spend $2500 on western expedition Jefferson chose Meriwether Lewis to lead expedition Lewis chose William Clark as his co-leader Goals of Exploration Report on Geography, plants, animals, & other natural features of region Make contact with Native American who lived in territory Find out waterways existed between the Mississippi and the Pacific Ocean

9 Lewis and Clark Explore the West
Spring of 1804, Lewis and Clark left St. Louis and headed up the Missouri River Expedition carried 40 men most Americans, several were French Canadians, also included an enslaved African American Mid-July reached the mouth of the Platte river, powerful tributary that flows into the Missouri Early-August- met Native Americans for the first time and reached the eastern edge of the Great Plains

10 Lewis and Clark October 1804, Lewis and Clark meet Sacagawea, who would serve as a translator on their travels Reach the Continental Divide (the Rocky Mountains) by Reached Columbia River and had to cross a 55 mile stretch of rapids & rough river; after rapids crossing they saw the Pacific Ocean Began return journey in March 1806, it took half a year to return to St. Louis.

11 Pike’s Expedition Zebulon Pike explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory Pike’s Peak in the Colorado Rocky Mountains was named after explorer Pike’s route took him into Spanish New Mexico Members of expedition group were arrested as spies by Spanish Spanish feared Pike was gathering information for an American take over of the region Men were held captive for months and were escorted back to United States Pike’s report on Spanish borderlands created great American interest in the region

12 Section 1 Review Questions
What was the importance of the purchase and exploration of the Louisiana territory. Explain 3-5 sentences Why was New Orleans important to the United States? What important right did the united states gain with Pinckney Treaty of 1795? What were some of the goals that Lewis and Clark had to achieve on their expedition? How did Sacagawea contribute to the expedition? What did Lewis and Clark encounter that impeded their travel to the Pacific ocean? Define the following terms: expedition, Meriwether Lewis, William Clark, Continental Divide, Zebulon Pike How did the Spanish react to Pike’s expeditions? What did they do?

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