Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution Britain Leads the Way Chapter 5, Section 2."— Presentation transcript:
Industrial Revolution Britain Leads the Way Chapter 5, Section 2
Focus Question What key factors allowed Britain to lead the way in the Industrial Revolution?
Why did Britain become the First Country to Industrialize? Plentiful natural resources Ports/natural harbors to ship goods worldwide Rivers (water for power) Canals (transport trade) Britain surrounded by sea Abundant coal supplies Supplies of iron to build machines
British Workforce Skilled mechanics and ready workforce Population explosion led to high demand for goods Available money Overseas trade contributed to prosperous British economy
Other factors contributed to the rise of industries in Great Britain
Capital Plenty capital (money) to loan and invest in new factories, mines, railroads, and enterprises (a business organization)
British Parliament Stable government and political system in Britain that supported economic growth Other countries were experiencing revolutions that destabilized the government
Powerful British Navy Strong navy to protect British trade, her empire, and overseas trade “The sun never set on the British empire”
Entrepreneurs New entrepreneurs (assume financial risks of starting new business) emerged
Interactive Geography Map Click on Type mzp-1921 in the web code box and click “go” On the next page click “continue” Click on the ► at the bottom of the page to start the video. Turn on the volume on your speakers for the sound.
Textile Industry Industrial Revolution began in British textile (cloth) industry British merchants developed a cotton cloth industry called the putting-out system In the putting-out system, the raw cotton was given to peasant families Families spun the cotton into thread in their cottages and then wove the thread into home-made cloth But production was really s-l-o-w under the putting-out system
Putting Out System
Making Cloth By Hand Was Time- Consuming and Slow New Inventions were Needed to Speed Cloth Production
New Inventions Faster inventions increased speed of cloth production Flying Shuttle (John Kay) Spinning Jenny – (James Hargreaves) Water Frame – 1769 – Richard Arkwright – spinning machine powered by water Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney – 1793 – separate seeds from raw cotton at fast rate – cotton production increased Cotton Gin
Flying Shuttle by John Kay (1733)
Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves (1764) By turning a single wheel, the operator could now spin eight threads at once. Clothing could be produced faster.
Water Frame by Richard Arkwright (1769) The water frame was powered by water. The disadvantage was that the machine had to be next to a water source.
Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney (1793) Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin : In 1794, Eli Whitney received a patent for his cotton gin, which separated cotton fibers from seeds. The machine's success led to both massive growth in American cotton production and a substantial increase in the importation of slave labor.
Factories The new machines destroyed the putting out system The machines were too large to operate in a cottage setting Manufacturers built factories along rivers/streams to use water as power source – rivers polluted with factory waste Cloth spinners/weavers operated the large machines in factories Workers manufactured more products using machines than by hand → the speed of cloth manufacturing increased
Transportation Problems More goods were being produced But transportation methods were slow and expensive A horse and cart could only carry so many goods from one destination to another The time to get the goods from the factory to the target destination was too long
Transportation Revolution Need to develop faster and cheaper means to transport the machine-produced products Turnpikes, canals, bridges, and harbors were constructed Canals cut the shipping time and thus the price of coal Development of steam locomotive caused shipping by canal to diminish – railroads could now travel where a canal was not located
Canals vs. Railroads Railroads could travel where canals were not located
Steam Locomotive Steam powered locomotive – pioneered by George Stephenson Products could be shipped quickly and cheaply over land First major rail line – Liverpool to Manchester – opened in 1830 Railroad construction boomed in Britain and Europe
Liverpool to Manchester Railway
George Stephenson’s Steam Locomotive
Chain Reaction: Effects of Industrial Revolution Machines produced goods faster than by hand Prices fell Lower prices made goods more affordable to more people More consumers demanded the cheaper goods Factories produced more goods and hired more workers to meet the demand New wave of economic and social changes occurred – some were good changes – some were bad changes
Powerpoint Questions 1. What is the name of the cloth industry where families manufactured the cloth in their cottages? 2. Who invented the cotton gin? What year? 3. The world’s first major rail line stretched from ___ to ___. 4. An entrepreneur is a type of (circle one) a. scientist b. inventor c. business person d. personal secretary
Powerpoint Questions 5. The first area to go through major industrialization was ______. a. bankingb. railroads c. coal miningd. textile production 6. Which was a geographic advantage for England in the Industrial Revolution? a. coastal mountainsb. moderate climate c. natural harborsd. year-round agriculture
Powerpoint Questions 7. The two essential natural resources for industrialization were a. coal and iron.b. gold and silver. c. water and trees.d. steel and oil.
Powerpoint Questions 8. Where were the earliest textile factories located in England? a. near the harborsb. on farms c. in the middle of large citiesd. on the banks of rivers 9. England benefitted from an excellent transportation system that allowed goods to be transported to and from factories. These included -- a. carts, trains, and airplanesb. trains, rivers, and canals c. ships, cars, and trainsd. horses, trains, and turnpikes