FACTORS AIDING INDUSTRIAL GROWTH CHANGES IN FARMING RISE IN POPULATION GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES NEW INVENTIONS
CHANGES IN FARMING 1700 – Agricultural revolution begins before Industrial Revolution The wealthy buy much of the land Landowners rent fields to tenant farmers Tenant farmers – one who farms another's land and pays rent, usually in a share of the crops. Landowners began fencing or hedging their land. This process is called enclosure. Landowners free to experiment.
Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural Revolution Landowners needed new ways to increase the harvest. Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific farmers. In 1721, he invented a seed drill. A seed drill allowed well spaced rows at a specific depth.
Scientific Revolution meets Agricultural Revolution Scientific farmers began to use crop rotation. This is a system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land. This practice began in the middle ages but was perfected by gentleman farmer Viscount Charles Townshend. Raising livestock was also improved. Only the best animals were allowed to breed.
RISE IN POPULATION Better livestock and rising crop production meant more food. During the 1700’s the population of Europe increased rapidly. The reasons for the growth were improved health and increased food supplies. The growth in population increased the need for food. However, this growth supplied the extra workers needed in the factories.
GEOGRAPHIC ADVANTAGES Great Britain had all of the factors needed to be a successful industrialized nation. Abundant natural resources Favorable geography Favorable climate for new ideas Effective banking system Politically stable
Abundant Natural Resources Industrialized countries needed 3 important natural resources: Water-power Coal Iron Ore Water and coal supplied the energy for the machines. Iron ore was needed to build machines, tools, and buildings.
Favorable Geography Britain is an island nation. She had many fine harbors and 6,000 merchant ships. These ships sailed to every part of the globe. Overseas trade gave Britain access to raw materials and markets.
Favorable Climate For New Ideas The British were interested in science and technology. They founded the Royal Society. Royal Society – world famous “club” for exchanging ideas and inventions. The wealthy British invested in new inventions.
Effective Banking System Great Britain had the most highly developed banking system in Europe. The service of making loans was very important during this time period. Loaning money at a reasonable interest rate encouraged people to invest in new inventions.
Politically Stable The British lived in a century of peace. Freedom from the expense of war allowed them to concentrate their money on new technology. Their government favored economic growth. It passed laws supporting and encouraging new investments.
Inventions Revolutionized the Textile Industry Britain became a world leader in raising sheep Wool became a major trading product Cotton becomes popular for lighter weight clothing Cloth made at home in cottage industries Work was done by hand on spinning wheels and looms
One Invention leads to Another Six Major Inventions Change the Cotton Industry John Kay - Flying Shuttle James Hargreaves - Spinning Jenny Richard Arkwright - Water Frame Samuel Crompton - Spinning Mule Edmund Cartwright - Power Loom Eli Whitney - Cotton Gin
John Kay’s Flying Shuttle The Flying Shuttle was invented in 1733 The Flying Shuttle was a piece of wood that held yarn The shuttle was woven in and out of the yarn tied to the loom It allowed the weaver to work twice as fast
James Hargreaves’ Spinning Jenny The Spinning Jenny was invented in 1764. It was a faster spinning wheel. This machine could spin 80 threads at a time. Humans could spin only 1 thread at a time. This machine was hand operated.
Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame Richard Arkwright invented the water frame in 1769. This invention used water power from a fast flowing stream to drive the spinning wheels.
Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule The Spinning Mule was invented in 1779. This machine combined the Spinning Jenny and the water frame. This machine was used to make stronger, finer thread.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin The Cotton Gin was invented in 1793. This machine removed seeds from cotton. Prior to this invention, seeds had to be removed by hand. Removing the seeds by hand took a lot of time. The Cotton Gin allowed for the cleaning of 10 times more cotton per day.
Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom The Power Loom was invented in 1785. This new loom made weaving much faster. It ran on waterpower. In 1813, 2000 looms were in use in English factories. By 1833, 100,000 looms were in use in England.
Industry Grows and Spreads To help transport goods faster from place to place engineers built: Better roads Canals Railroads
Roads A Scottish engineer, John McAdam, invented a better way to build roads. First he layered the roadbed with large rocks. The second phase was to smooth a layer of crushed rock over the first layer. This process was called the “Macadam” surface.
Canals Canals are human made waterways. Networks of these canals were built in England. Over 4000 miles of inland waterways were constructed. They lowered the cost of transporting raw materials to the factories.
Railroads The inventors of the railroad locomotive put the steam engine on wheels. 1804 - Richard Trevithick -invented a small powerful steam engine which pulled a cart along tracks. 1821 - George Stephenson built 1st railroad line which was 27 miles long. He called his steam engine the Rocket. It ran 24 miles per hour.
Far Reaching Effects of the Railroad The railroads encouraged industrial growth. They were a fast, cheap way to transport raw materials and products. The railroads provided new jobs. The railroads boosted agriculture. It was easier to transport goods (milk, fruit, etc.) to distant cities. Railroads made travel easier.
Industrial Revolution Changed Lives The Industrial Revolution spread to other countries. The growth of factories brought people to the cities. The working conditions in factories began to improve. The middle class social structure grew. Social tensions began to build between the different classes.
Early looms and spinning wheels ran off of water. Every factory had to be built near rushing water. These locations were often inconvenient. 1763 - James Watt and Matthew Boulton - Scottish entrepreneurs (entrepreneurs organize and take risks in business) who improved the steam engine by using coal to power it
Factories Grew Out of Cottage Industries New machines were too large to be used in homes. Wealthy merchants set up machines in large buildings. These large buildings became known as factories. Factory - a large building where goods are made. They ran off of water and were built near streams. Cotton cloth became popular. Most English cotton came from America. Cotton production increased - 1791: 9000 bales 1831: 987,000 bales