Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution. In our modern world, we make daily use of the products of an industrialised era. These products include a wide variety of goods."— Presentation transcript:
The Industrial Revolution
In our modern world, we make daily use of the products of an industrialised era. These products include a wide variety of goods manufactured for our consumption. It has not always been like this.
There was a time when almost all products were hand-made and the factory system did not exist. This was called Cottage Industry
The transition from a world of cottage industry to a factory system is known as the Industrial Revolution.
Booming Britain The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780’s. In a little over a century, Britain went from a largely rural, agrarian population to a country of industrialized towns, factories, mines and workshops. Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain?
1. Resources Britain was a small nation in area but had large supplies of coal to power steam engines Also had plentiful iron to build new machines In addition to natural resources, labor supply was necessary. Many workers were needed to mine coal and iron, build factories, and run machines
18001 ton of coal50, 000 miners tons200, 000 miners million tons500, 000 miners million tons1, 200, 000 miners Coal Mining in Britain:
Young Coal Miners
Child Labor in the Mines Child “hurriers”
British Iron Production
Newcomen Steam Engine
2. New Technology -In 1700’s, Britain had plenty of skilled mechanics, eager to meet demand for new practical inventions -Many of these new inventions were agricultural. Perhaps the most important of these was the seed drill.
Revolution in Agriculture Up until this period, farmers planted the seeds for cereal crops by carrying the seeds in a bag and walking up and down the field throwing or spreading the seed. They dropped the seed by hand on to the ploughed ground. The problem with this method was that it did not give a very even distribution. It was not, therefore, an efficient use of the seed and much of it was wasted.
Seed Drill Jethro Tull invented a Seed Drill which could be pulled behind a horse. It consisted of a wheeled vehicle containing a box filled with grain. There was a wheel-driven ratchet that sprayed the seed out evenly as the Seed Drill was pulled across the field.
3. Economic Conditions Trade from growing overseas empire helped British economy prosper With slave trade, business class accumulated capital (wealth) to invest in enterprises such as shipping, mines, railroads, factories Many entrepreneurs were willing to risk their wealth in new ventures Population explosion increased demand for goods
4. Political/Social Conditions Stable government supported economic growth Built strong navy to protect empire and overseas trade Religious attitudes played a role – many entrepreneurs came from religious groups that encouraged thrift and hard work
The Enclosure Movement
“Enclosed” Lands Today
Changes in Textile Industry -IR first took hold in Britain’s largest industry – textiles -1600’s – cotton cloth imported from India became popular -Merchants tried to organize cotton cloth industry at home -developed “putting out” system – raw cotton distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and wove thread into cloth -artisans in towns then finished and dyed the cloth.
Bellringer Write a summary using the following vocab terms: Industrial revolution Britain Cottage industry Textiles Seed Drill Enclosure movement Urbanization Coal Iron Factory system
First Factories New machines doomed putting out system, but were too large and expensive to be operated at home. Manufacturers built long sheds to house them. Often by streams. Spinners and weavers came every day to work in these first factories
Factory Production Concentrates production in one place [materials, labor]. Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] more than skilled labor. Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
Textile Factory Workers in England looms 150, 000 workers , 000 looms 200, 000 workers , 000 looms>1 million workers
The Factory System × Rigid schedule. × hour day. × Dangerous conditions. × Mind-numbing monotony.
Textile Factory Workers in England
British Coin Portraying a Factory, 1812
Major Inventions in Textiles Cottage industry was slow. As demand for cloth grew, inventors came up with several machines that revolutionized the industry.
James Hargreaves – Spinning Jenny (1764) – spun many threads at a time
John Kay’s “Flying Shuttle” (1733) Allowed weavers to work so fast they outpaced spinners
Richard Arkwright – waterframe (1769)– used water power to speed up spinning more
Spread of Industrialization By the mid 1800’s, Great Britain had become the world’s first industrial nation. It had also become the world’s richest nation.
Productivity Great Britain produced half of the world’s coal and manufactured goods. Its cotton industry alone in 1850 was equal in size to the industries of all other European countries combined.
British Cotton Imports & Exports
Spread of Industrialization The industrial revolution spread to the rest of Europe at different times and at different speeds. Belgium, France, and the German states were the first to be industrialized in Europe. By 1850, a network of iron rails spread across Europe.
Railroads in 19 th century Great Britain
United States Industrializes The Industrial Revolution also occurred in the United States in the first half of the 19 th century. In 1800, more than 5 million people lived in the USA, and nearly 6 out of every 7 American workers were farmers. No city had more than 100,000 people.
United States Industrializes By 1860, population had grown to more than 30 million. Many of these people moved into cities. Eight cities had populations over 100,000 and only 50% of American workers were farmers.
Railroads in the USA A large country, the United States needed a good transportation system to move goods across the nation. Thousands of miles of roads and canals were built to link east and west.
Railroads in the USA Most important in this development was the railroad. By 1860, about 30,000 miles of railroad track covered the United States. By 1890, 200,000 miles of railroad track covered the United States.
Industrialization in the United States
Effects of the Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution completely changed society. Cities grew, and two new social classes emerged 1. Industrial middle class 2. Industrial working class
Population Growth and Urbanization European population 1750: 140 million European population 1850: 266 million
The Industrial Revolution: Cause and Effect 2 Causes Increased agricultural productivity Growing population New sources of energy, such as steam and coal Growing demand for textiles and other mass-produced goods Improved technology Available natural resources, labor, and money Strong, stable governments that promoted economic growth Immediate Effects Rise of factories Changes in transportation and Urbanization New methods of production Rise of urban working class Growth of reform movements Long-Term Effects Growth of labor unions Inexpensive new products Spread of industrialization Rise of big business Expansion of public education Expansion of middle class Competition for world trade among industrialized nations Progress in medical care