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Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution

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1 Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution

2 Essential Question Discuss the following questions with your neighbors and be prepared to share with the class: What are some ways that people and goods travel today?



5 Section 1 The Beginnings of Industrialization
Industrial Revolution begins in Britain Industrial Revolution begins in mid-18th Century England Agricultural Revolution & Effects Wealthy landowners buy & enclose land from village farmers=bigger farms Enclosures increases efficiency & allow experimentation w/ new agricultural methods Crop rotation increased nutrients in the soil Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed Small farmers lose land & become tenant farmers or move to cities for work Increase food supply & population Industrial Revolution: increase output of machine-made goods Enclosures: large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges Crop rotation: switching crops each year to avoid depleting soil Livestock breeders: raise farm animals

6 Why England? Natural resources: water power, coal, iron, rivers, harbors Expanding economy encourages investment Banking, loans, climate of prosperity Political stability No wars fought on Brit soil in 1700s Has all needed factors of production: Land Labor Capital Stability: to be stable, not changing, no chaos Capital: money needed for investment

7 Why was England 1st to Industrialize
Divide your page into 4 sections Label each section: Natural resources Expanding economy Political stability Factors of production Write a sentence that summarizes each reason Draw an illustration for each reason

8 Inventions Spur Industrialization
Advances in technology allow production of textile goods to increase Improvements in Transportation Road Transportation British roads are improved & become toll roads Steam engine Water Transportation Steamboat Canals improve England’s water transportation Launched Railway Age Railway Age Railroads bring transportation of people & materials to new level Spur industrial growth & create jobs Cheaper transportation of goods boosts many industries People move to cities Textile: cloth produced by weaving entrepreneur: organizes, manages, takes business risks Canals: man made rivers Toll roads: a fee is required in order to use the road

9 Inventions of Industrialization
Inventor Invention Significance Jethro Tull Seed Drill Allowed farmers to plant seeds deeper and in rows, producing more crops Robert Bakewell Selective Breeding Farmers only let the best animals breed to produce bigger offspring that had more meat John Kay Flying shuttle Shuttle flew back and forth weaving cloth much faster than a person could James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny Spinning wheel that produced more thread at a faster rate Richard Arkwright Water frame Used water to power the spinning machines Samuel Crompton Spinning Mule Combined the Spinning Jenny and water frame to make better thread Edmund Cartwright Power loom Used water to power weaving machines Eli Whitney Cotton Gin Removed seeds from cotton and increased production James Watt Steam Engine Improved the steam engine Robert Fulton Steam Boat Put a steam engine on a boat that allowed it to move up and down rivers Richard Trevithick Locomotive Used steam engine to power the first train

10 The Beginnings of Industrialization Use your book/notebook to explain how each factor contributed to an Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Agricultural revolution Increased food supplies led to an increase in population that boosted demand for manufactured goods and provided labor for factories Abundant natural resources Britain had the natural resources needed for industrialization: water power, coal, iron ore, rivers, and harbors Political stability Enabled Britain to devote its energies and resources to economic expansion, industrialization, and overseas trade; created a climate for progress Factors of production Britain had all the resources needed to produce goods and services, including land, labor, & capital Technological advances in textile industry Improved the quality & speed of cotton cloth production; boosted profits; spurred other industrial improvements Entrepreneurs Provided organization and management skills & took financial risks of developing new businesses Building of factories Allowed industry to move out of the home & into a central location Railroad boom Provided an inexpensive way to transport raw materials and manufactured products; created new jobs

11 Exit Slip Why was England the 1st country to industrialize?
4 reasons Name 2 key inventions that furthered the Industrial Revolution? Name 2 improvements in transportation

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