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Europe – The Dark Ages.

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Presentation on theme: "Europe – The Dark Ages."— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe – The Dark Ages

2 Major Eras of European History
Classical Era (Greece and Rome) 500 B.C A.D. Middle Ages (time of knights and castles) 500 A.D. – 1500 A.D. Renaissance Early Modern Era (time of powerful kings and exploration) 1500 A.D. – 1776 A.D.


4 Why was Europe so dangerous during Middle Ages?
Disease War Weak governments (No rule of law; no police or army)

5 Who were the Vikings? Raiders from Scandinavia who attacked villages along coastlines and up rivers. Lacked resources and centralized government

6 Vikings!

7 Viking longboat

8 Vinland Around 1000


10 Iceland Greenland


12 No more large cities, trade, scholarship.
With all the disease, riots, outside attacks and starvation people fled the cities of the once strong Roman empire. In Europe, people now lived on manors, self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands.

13 Castles!




17 Feudal Warfare!!!!

18 Trebuchets were used to hurl all sorts of objects at the enemy.



21 Life on the Medieval Manor
Serfs at work

22 What is Manorialism? Economic System: Manoralism – the economic system of Middle Ages based on the manor. No large-scale trade. People live in isolated farming communities centered around a manor, a castle, a church. Farmland surrounds this small community.

23 What is cottage industry?
People made stuff at home in their cottage. No factories; no trade

24 Feudalism The kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $. Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protection Knights let serfs work the land and he would protect them. Serfs got food and shelter. Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities

25 Feudalism….summary Again, the king is at the top
The king grants land to the lords. Lords are in charge of the knights. Knights get land; they practice fighting Peasants or serfs work the land in exchange for protection

26 Serfs Serfdom represented a stage between slavery and freedom
Slaves belong to master and can be bought and sold; Serfs could not be sold apart from the land nor could his holding be taken from him. Medieval Serfs were fixed to the soil. he could not change his abode, nor marry outside the manor, nor bequeath his goods, without the permission of his lord.

27 Chivalry- medieval code of honor

28 Middle Ages Intellectual achievements: It was a “dark” time for Europe intellectually. Literacy and scholarship was low. There was not much science or philosophy or art. There was only one book, only a few copies of it, and only priests could read it. (written in Latin)

29 Rome vs Middle Ages

30 What was the Role of Church in Middle Ages?
Church offered political stability Offered comfort and help in a time of need Grew very powerful!

31 Role of Church Monks were spiritual leaders
They lived in monasteries that acted like trade schools and YMCAs

32 Popes were more powerful than kings!
Since there were no strong empires, the Church was one organization that had respect and power. Popes were more powerful than kings!

33 Monks and Nuns were glorified
Here, monks are hand-copying Bibles in a scriptorium ( a room for copying Bibles).

34 Pope Crowned Charlemagne King in the year 800 (Dec. 25th)

35 There are 2 wars you need to know about.
In 1066, Norman invasion of England (by William of Normandy)


37 William of Normandy helped make England what it is today and codified feudalism (gave it the force of law).

38 Crusades The Crusades were a series of battles between Christians and Muslims in the Middle East. Christian knights wanted to take the Holy Land and give it back to Christians

39 Why was Constantinople so important geographically?
It was on a major choke point or “crossroads” betwn Euro and Mid East

40 What was the impact of the Crusades?
Social: Persecution of Jews and Muslims; spread of Greek and Arab learning Economic development via trade Political: Kings and popes, gained power as a result.

41 Islamic Empire (purple)

42 No Dark Age outside Europe!
Islamic scholars made scientific advances during the European Middle Ages. ALSO, they preserved the ancient Greek and Roman texts that Europeans seemed to have misplaced after Rome’s fall. University in Morocco. Founded in 859 C.E.!

43 The Crusades established contact with the rest of the world.

44 Magna Carta Example of Rule of Law
Limited the power of the king in 1215 The 1215 Charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary

45 What are technologies of the Middle Ages?
Water Wheel Crop rotation Eyeglasses Mechanical Clock Printing Gunpowder

46 Crop Rotation After years of growing the same crop, you need to grow something different so you don’t deplete the soil of nutrients.

47 Eyeglasses Invented in Pisa 13th century
By 15th century Italy making thousands spectacles Eyeglasses encouraged invention of fine instruments Gauges Micrometers Fine wheel cutters Precision tools

48 Mechanical Clock Undermined Church authority Every town wanted one
equal hours for day and night a new concept Every town wanted one Public clocks installed in towers Allowed individual autonomy Work now measured by time increased productivity Bern, Switzerland

49 Gunpowder Europeans improved gunpowder to siege castles
Europeans focused on range and weight of projectiles: siege warfare

50 Ensured quality of workmanship, regulated prices.
Craft Guilds A group of artisans engaged in the same occupation, e.g., bakers, cobblers, stone masons, etc.. mutual protection and mutual aid. The purpose of the guilds was to maintain a monopoly of a particular craft (no outsiders allowed!) Ensured quality of workmanship, regulated prices. Merchant Guilds organizations formed for mutual protection (horses, wagons, and goods) when travelling. Provided the nucleus for civic organization. (mayors, town councils, etc…) Often a merchant guild would found a town by obtaining a charter.

51 Where was the “crossroads” to the Crusades?
Where is Rome? Where was the “crossroads” to the Crusades? Where was the Norman Invasion in 1066? Where did the Crusades take place? Where is Greece?

52 Summary The Roman Empire fell due to outside attacks and disease (brought on by trade) The Middle Ages began as the Church replaced governments as the central authority.

53 Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection
Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities. Cultures interact through wars, such as the Crusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas

54 Any questions before the quiz?

55 1. What was the economic system of the Middle Ages in Europe?

56 Fight for the lord and protect the manor and it’s inhabitants
2. Under Feudalism, what responsibility does a knight have? What does he give in return? Fight for the lord and protect the manor and it’s inhabitants

57 3. In what year did William of Normandy invade England?

58 4. How did monks and nuns improve life in the Middle Ages?
a. They opposed the feudal system b. they gave land to peasants c. they cared for the sick and poor d. they excommunicated criminals

59 5. A peasant who was tied to the land
A. slave B. plebeian C. serf D. baron

60 6. New agricultural technologies in the Middle Ages led to
A. increased food production B. creation of farming guilds C. end of Church influence D. end of feudalism

61 7. According to the map, what percentage of people died of Black Death in area A?
15-50% B. over 50% C. it was unaffected D. under 15%

62 8. Crop _________ allowed for an increase of production of food on the manor.
A. burning B. splitting C. thinning D. rotation

63 9. Writing rooms where monks copied the Bible were called _______
A. scriptoriums B. writing lavs C. Ecrivers D. Guttenbergs

64 10. According to the map, which areas were the most affected by the Black Death?
A. C and D B. A and F C. B D. E

65 11. This was an economic result of the Crusades.
A. trading contacts were opened with the Muslim world B. cultural diffusion happened in Jerusalem C. Popes gained ruling power D. many people died

66 12. This is a social result of the Crusades
A. Kings got more powerful as a result B. Trading connections will lead to greater European wealth C. persecution of Jews and Muslims D. Popes got stronger as a result

67 13. The Magna Carta can be described as a
A. Journal about English feudal society B. list of feudal rights that limited the power of the English monarchy C. census of all tax-paying nobility in feudal England D. statement of grievances of the middle class in England

68 14. This is an economic result of the Crusades?
A. Trading connections helped many Europeans get rich B. Many people died of plague C. Popes gained political power D. kings established trade routes with Scandinavia

69 15. Political and social system based on the ownership of land
A. mercantilism B. feudalism C. communism D. monoralism

70 18. The economic system of the Middle Ages that was based on small, self-sufficient communities was
A. feudalism B. traditional C. manorialism D. market

71 19.This institution was the most respected and held most of the political power in Europe
A. monarchy B. The Church C. The Peasant’s Guild D. Illuminati

72 20. Norsemen from Scandinavia who terrorized Europe using their masterful sailing skills (their longboats) A. Angles and Saxons B. Vikings C. Mongols D. Celts

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