2 Major Eras of European History Classical Era (Greece and Rome) 500 B.C A.D.Middle Ages (time of knights and castles) 500 A.D. – 1500 A.D.RenaissanceEarly Modern Era (time of powerful kings and exploration) 1500 A.D. – 1776 A.D.
12 No more large cities, trade, scholarship. With all the disease, riots, outside attacks and starvation people fled the cities of the once strong Roman empire.In Europe, people now lived on manors, self-sufficient communities consisting of a castle, church, village and surrounding farmlands.
22 What is Manorialism?Economic System: Manoralism – the economic system of Middle Ages based on the manor. No large-scale trade.People live in isolated farming communities centered around a manor, a castle, a church. Farmland surrounds this small community.
23 What is cottage industry? People made stuff at home in their cottage. No factories; no trade
24 FeudalismThe kings had lots of land; he gave land to lords in exchange for protection and $.Lords gave their land to knights in exchange for protectionKnights let serfs work the land and he would protect them.Serfs got food and shelter.Thus, each person had rights and responsibilities
25 Feudalism….summary Again, the king is at the top The king grants land to the lords. Lords are in charge of the knights.Knights get land; they practice fightingPeasants or serfs work the land in exchange for protection
26 Serfs Serfdom represented a stage between slavery and freedom Slaves belong to master and can be bought and sold; Serfs could not be sold apart from the land nor could his holding be taken from him.Medieval Serfs were fixed to the soil. he could not change his abode, nor marry outside the manor, nor bequeath his goods, without the permission of his lord.
28 Middle AgesIntellectual achievements: It was a “dark” time for Europe intellectually.Literacy and scholarship was low. There was not much science or philosophy or art.There was only one book, only a few copies of it, and only priests could read it. (written in Latin)
42 No Dark Age outside Europe! Islamic scholars made scientific advances during the European Middle Ages.ALSO, they preserved the ancient Greek and Roman texts that Europeans seemed to have misplaced after Rome’s fall.University in Morocco.Founded in 859 C.E.!
43 The Crusades established contact with the rest of the world.
44 Magna Carta Example of Rule of Law Limited the power of the king in 1215The 1215 Charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties, and accept that his will was not arbitrary
45 What are technologies of the Middle Ages? Water WheelCrop rotationEyeglassesMechanical ClockPrintingGunpowder
46 Crop RotationAfter years of growing the same crop, you need to grow something different so you don’t deplete the soil of nutrients.
47 Eyeglasses Invented in Pisa 13th century By 15th century Italy making thousands spectaclesEyeglasses encouraged invention of fine instrumentsGaugesMicrometersFine wheel cuttersPrecision tools
48 Mechanical Clock Undermined Church authority Every town wanted one equal hours for day and night a new conceptEvery town wanted onePublic clocks installed in towersAllowed individual autonomyWork now measured by timeincreased productivityBern, Switzerland
49 Gunpowder Europeans improved gunpowder to siege castles Europeans focused on range and weight of projectiles: siege warfare
50 Ensured quality of workmanship, regulated prices. Craft GuildsA group of artisans engaged in the same occupation, e.g., bakers, cobblers, stone masons, etc..mutual protection and mutual aid.The purpose of the guilds was to maintain a monopoly of a particular craft (no outsiders allowed!)Ensured quality of workmanship, regulated prices.Merchant Guildsorganizations formed for mutual protection (horses, wagons, and goods) when travelling.Provided the nucleus for civic organization. (mayors, town councils, etc…)Often a merchant guild would found a town by obtaining a charter.
51 Where was the “crossroads” to the Crusades? Where is Rome?Where was the “crossroads” to the Crusades?Where was the Norman Invasion in 1066?Where did the Crusades take place?Where is Greece?
52 SummaryThe Roman Empire fell due to outside attacks and disease (brought on by trade)The Middle Ages began as the Church replaced governments as the central authority.
53 Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities.Cultures interact through wars, such as the Crusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas
55 1. What was the economic system of the Middle Ages in Europe? Manorialism
56 Fight for the lord and protect the manor and it’s inhabitants 2. Under Feudalism, what responsibility does a knight have? What does he give in return?Fight for the lord and protect the manor and it’s inhabitants
57 3. In what year did William of Normandy invade England? 1066
58 4. How did monks and nuns improve life in the Middle Ages? a. They opposed the feudal systemb. they gave land to peasantsc. they cared for the sick and poord. they excommunicated criminals
59 5. A peasant who was tied to the land A. slaveB. plebeianC. serfD. baron
60 6. New agricultural technologies in the Middle Ages led to A. increased food productionB. creation of farming guildsC. end of Church influenceD. end of feudalism
61 7. According to the map, what percentage of people died of Black Death in area A? 15-50%B. over 50%C. it was unaffectedD. under 15%
62 8. Crop _________ allowed for an increase of production of food on the manor. A. burningB. splittingC. thinningD. rotation
63 9. Writing rooms where monks copied the Bible were called _______ A. scriptoriumsB. writing lavsC. EcriversD. Guttenbergs
64 10. According to the map, which areas were the most affected by the Black Death? A. C and DB. A and FC. BD. E
65 11. This was an economic result of the Crusades. A. trading contacts were opened with the Muslim worldB. cultural diffusion happened in JerusalemC. Popes gained ruling powerD. many people died
66 12. This is a social result of the Crusades A. Kings got more powerful as a resultB. Trading connections will lead to greater European wealthC. persecution of Jews and MuslimsD. Popes got stronger as a result
67 13. The Magna Carta can be described as a A. Journal about English feudal societyB. list of feudal rights that limited the power of the English monarchyC. census of all tax-paying nobility in feudal EnglandD. statement of grievances of the middle class in England
68 14. This is an economic result of the Crusades? A. Trading connections helped many Europeans get richB. Many people died of plagueC. Popes gained political powerD. kings established trade routes with Scandinavia
69 15. Political and social system based on the ownership of land A. mercantilismB. feudalismC. communismD. monoralism
70 18. The economic system of the Middle Ages that was based on small, self-sufficient communities was A. feudalismB. traditionalC. manorialismD. market
71 19.This institution was the most respected and held most of the political power in Europe A. monarchyB. The ChurchC. The Peasant’s GuildD. Illuminati
72 20. Norsemen from Scandinavia who terrorized Europe using their masterful sailing skills (their longboats)A. Angles and SaxonsB. VikingsC. MongolsD. Celts