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1 Sustainable Design and Energy Management using Addressable Lighting Controls AIACES111 AIA Provider #: /2013

2 2 OSRAM SYLVANIA, Inc. is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

3 3 Copyright Materials This presentation is protected by US and International Copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the OSRAM SYLVANIA, Inc is prohibited. © Osram Sylvania 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

4 4 Objectives Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to: Define how “Addressable Lighting Controls” reduce carbon footprint while aiding in the design of energy efficient “sustainable” buildings; Identify the six energy management strategies and their effect on energy efficiency and economic value while enhancing the health, safety and welfare of the occupants of a building; Evaluate the benefits an addressable lighting control system can offer with respect to user comfort, safety, energy savings, system commissioning & maintenance when compared to traditional analog lighting control systems; Assess other economic benefits an addressable lighting control system can offer. For example, optimization of HVAC energy use, flexibility to be part of any comprehensive, automated, building (energy) management system that encompasses lighting, HVAC, security and life safety systems.

5 5 Sustainable Design and Energy Management 1.Objective 2.Lighting Controls & Energy Management 3.Sustainable Design and Addressable Lighting Controls 4.Economic Benefits 5.Energy Management Strategies 6.Industry Case Studies 7.Addressable Lighting Controls & Intelligent Buildings concept 8.Demand Management 9.Conclusions

6 6 Sustainable Design and Energy Management On average, lighting accounts for one-third of energy use in office buildings, and thus often dominates the opportunity for energy savings among all electrical systems –Buildings consume more than one-third of the total primary energy used in the USA –About two-thirds of a building’s primary energy use is attributed to electricity [1],[5],[6] Source : U.S. Energy Information Administration

7 7 Sustainable Design and Energy Management Lighting efficiency measures traditionally restricted to high performance lamps/ballasts and conventional low voltage controls and sensors Lighting has historically not been considered to be a “controllable” building load for demand management purposes

8 8 Sustainable Design and Energy Management Addressable Lighting Controls What are Addressable Lighting Controls? The ability to address and control each fixture or peripheral device (such as occupancy sensors, photo sensors and wall controllers) individually. All devices (each with a unique address) are networked and centrally controlled through a central software interface. –This allows for addressable dimming or switching of light fixtures independent of electrical circuiting.

9 9 Sustainable Design and Energy Management An example illustrating the Graphical User Interface (GUI) for an “Addressable Lighting Control System”. Lights ON Lights OFF Occupancy Sensor: Space occupied Occupancy Sensor: Space not occupied Each device on the floor plan has a unique address Lights ON due to time delay

10 10 Contribution to Sustainable Design National Institute of Building Sciences define sustainable building design with the following six fundamental principles: 1.Optimize Site/Existing Structure Potential 2.Optimize Energy Use 3.Protect and Conserve Water 4.Use Environmentally Preferable Products 5.Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) 6.Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

11 11 Contribution to Sustainable Design 1.Optimize Site/Existing Structure Potential Maximize daylight use –Integration with Electric Lighting Controls Daylighting strategies drive building shape and form, integrating them well into the design from structural, mechanical, electrical, and architectural standpoints. Source: Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities by ASHRAE

12 12 Contribution to Sustainable Design 2. Optimize Energy Use Use of sensors to control loads based on occupancy, schedule and/or the availability of natural resources such as daylight Use of Smart Controls that merge building automation systems with information technology (IT) infrastructures Specify lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements Use of comprehensive building commissioning plan throughout the life of the project

13 13 Contribution to Sustainable Design 5. Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Use of integrated high performance lighting controls, lamps & ballasts to supplement natural light Use of daylighting for ambient lighting wherever feasible Reduce direct glare from natural Sources Provide reduced levels of diffused general illumination

14 14 Contribution to Sustainable Design 6. Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Use of schedule, occupancy sensors, etc. to control lighting Addressable lighting control systems have energy reporting software that can track lighting energy use down to the individual fixture level

15 15 Lighting & HVAC According to U.S. Department of Energy heat generated by standard lighting increases a building’s cooling load and can account for up to 42% of the building’s cooling load in a “typical” commercial building 1 W/ft. 2 of extra lighting power requires 15-20% of extra cooling air [2] A good rule of thumb is every 3 W of lighting energy saved = 1 W HVAC energy saved

16 16 Conventional Lighting Controls Low voltage relay based controls –Most prevalent form of facility wide lighting control –Turn lights ON/OFF by lighting circuit/switch leg (zone) based on time schedule Occupancy Sensors –Automatically turn lights OFF if occupancy is not detected –Local controls only – no sharing of data with centralized control system or other building systems

17 17 Conventional Lighting Controls: Limitations No ability to address & control individual fixtures –Zoning restricted to lighting circuiting No workspace or task specific control –i.e. tuning light levels based on use Lack of centralized “intelligence” to allow deployment of combined energy management strategies Limited ability to integrate or share data with other building systems such as HVAC, Security and Fire

18 18 Addressable Lighting Controls: Advantages Addressable lighting controls are the most effective method to shed lighting load in commercial buildings Addressable control capabilities – switching/dimming Centrally managed facility wide control systems designed specifically for energy management Bring control point down to individual fixture level via unique address Controlled through front end software and integrated with BAS and other building systems –Remote re-zoning and changes in energy management strategies

19 19 Types of Addressable Lighting Controls Use of Addressable (Digital) ballasts (i.e. DALI) –Addresses embedded into digital ballast –Typically requires re-commissioning upon ballast replacement –Ballasts costs much higher than 0-10v (Analog) ballasts Use of Addressable Input/Output modules –Use of standard 0-10v (analog) ballasts/LED drivers & sensors connected to addressable Input/Output modules –No re-commissioning required upon ballast/driver & sensor replacement –Systems are not tied to a single ballast/sensor vendor

20 20 Simple Upgrading and Stand Alone Controls Simple upgrading of a lighting system with more efficient technologies (e.g., T12  T8 upgrade) offers some potential for reduction in lighting energy consumption. Replacement or upgrading of existing fixtures with energy efficient lighting equipment alone won’t produce optimum energy savings. Stand alone local lighting controls (such as occupancy sensors) are one dimensional switching strategies that are not networked and do not offer the multiple dimming strategies

21 21 Using Addressable Lighting Controls Advanced lighting controls in conjunction with various energy management strategies can typically yield a combined lighting energy savings of 40% – 80% in office buildings [15],[21] –According to Stephen Selkowitz, Chairman, Building Technologies Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory all lighting should be “dimmable and addressable” Day of year (1990) Daily Energy Use (6 am to 6 pm)

22 22 Energy Management Strategies

23 Smart Time Scheduling With time scheduling, lights in a facility can be turned “ON”, “OFF”, or “DIMMED” according to day, night, holiday and other schedules Lights can be scheduled to be turned ON/OFF by zones as small as an office, workstation or even a light fixture When used as a standalone strategy can save 15% - 25% of lighting energy [13],[14],[15],[23] 23

24 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison Unlike conventional lighting controls, addressable dimming lighting controls offer the ability to program time schedules down to the individual fixture level (independent of electrical circuiting) resulting in significant savings. Lighting schedules can be made to automatically extend in the event that after hours occupancy is detected via the “virtual occupancy sensor” feature. –Virtual occupancy sensor = Lights stay on in response to PC keyboard/mouse movements 24

25 Daylight Harvesting With daylight harvesting, lights are dimmed or switched in response to sensed ambient light levels. As daylight levels fall off, dimming levels of individual fixtures are adjusted so that total illumination is evenly maintained throughout the space at the required level. When used as a standalone strategy can save 20% - 50% of lighting energy [5],[8],[13],[15],[18] 25

26 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison Conventional daylight harvesting systems require one photo sensor to control a group of ballasts typically on one circuit or switch leg. –Due to this limitation, conventional controls operate a large group of fixtures all in the same manner thereby limiting the full potential of daylight harvesting. In the case of addressable dimming lighting controls, photo sensor to fixture associations are software based. –In fact, just one photo sensor can be used for daylight harvesting an entire facade of a floor. –The amount of dimming for each individual fixture can be adjusted based on its proximity to a natural light source and is controlled digitally through software, thus significantly enhancing the energy saving potential. 26

27 Task Tuning “Tuning” or setting default light levels to suit the particular task or use of a workspace –Light levels are “tuned” fixture by fixture throughout a facility (through dimming), thereby eliminating over-lighting. When used as a standalone strategy can save 10% - 25% of lighting energy [7],[14],[15] 27

28 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison With conventional lighting controls, fine tuning of lighting based on workspace or task is not possible. –Conventional controls are generally applied at the circuit level causing large groups of fixtures to be controlled together. With addressable lighting controls, –Each fixture in a facility can be task tuned on an individually addressable basis from the software –There’s no guessing – exact light levels are easily set for all areas of a facility Retune work areas as usage changes –Lighting design can sometimes be simplified even if aggressive power density levels are desired 28

29 Occupancy Control Occupancy sensors switch the lights OFF when the space is not occupied and switch the lights ON when the space is occupied. When used as a standalone strategy can save 20% - 45% of lighting energy [11],[14],[15],[18] 29

30 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison Conventional occupancy controls a group of ballasts typically on one circuit or switch leg. With addressable lighting controls, –Lights are automatically turned “ON”, “OFF” or “DIMMED” based on occupancy detection (independent of electrical circuiting) –Soft association of sensors to fixtures via software –Allows for overlapping and support zones –Can share real time occupancy data with other building systems via BACnet ® or Tridium interface –Ability to change sensor to manual “ON”/auto “OFF” mode (vacancy sensors) to provide another layer of energy saving 30

31 Personal Control Personal lighting controls allows ON/OFF switching or dimming using virtual slide dimmers located on the occupant’s computer or IP phone When used as a standalone strategy can save 7% - 23% of lighting energy [5],[10],[11] 31

32 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison Each light fixture can be dimmed or turned off individually (independent of electrical circuiting) allowing users ultimate flexibility in setting preferred light levels –PC is used as secondary form of occupancy sensor –Significant contributor to energy savings as most users dim lights below default light levels Studies of personal lighting control suggest that it offers office occupants a route to a more comfortable physical work environment resulting in increased productivity while also delivering energy savings [10] Energy saving with a comfortable physical work environment is possible only with lighting that is individually addressable and dimmable as is the case with advanced lighting controls. 32

33 Variable Load Control System automatically executes load shedding in response to energy price spikes or to reduce peak demand –System can respond to information from a demand meter, a utility demand response signal, or a signal from building or energy management systems When used as a standalone strategy can save 15% - 25% of lighting energy [12],[15],[16],[17],[18],[20] 33

34 Addressable vs. Conventional Comparison With addressable lighting controls, –Lights can be dimmed based on a prioritized hierarchy of zones System will not allow diming beyond a threshold value thus ensuring the comfort and safety of the occupants –Configurable fade rate allows for gradual dimming of lights in a manner generally imperceptible by occupants 34 Conventional lighting controls offer limited abilities when it comes to integration or sharing occupancy or load shedding data with building automation systems (BAS) –They, therefore, lack the ability to provide or react to load shedding/demand response signals effectively.

35 35 Industry Case Studies Energy Management Strategies Lighting energy savings due to Addressable Lighting Controls Average Savings by Strategy * Multi-Tenant office bldg 300K ft 2 HQ of Fortune 100 firm 400K ft 2 Hospital Admin Building 175K ft 2 Major sports complex 1.3 M ft 2 Smart Time scheduling13.91%8.91%22.2%24.01% % Daylight Harvesting0.60%3.96%8.15%3.4% % Task Tuning9.0%10.95%13.24%5.32% % Occupancy Control31.3%24.94%25.38%37.21% % Personal Control6.12%10.64%1.8%2.1% % Variable Load Control0.03%4.65%3.2%5.1%0 - 5% Cumulative Savings due to Addressable Lighting Controls 60.96%64.05%73.97%77.14%

36 Intelligent Buildings Architecture Advances in data processing and communication technologies enable an intelligent building to control, monitor and optimize various building services –Multiple systems while sharing data cabling can co-exist, independently and securely, on a common converged IP backbone O&M costs which represent 75 percent of a building’s lifetime costs can offer a “ROI” of less than two years with intelligent building approach [24][25] 36 Ethernet or Fiber backbone Distributed, but Coordinated Monitoring & Control Source : IBM Corporation

37 Specifying Intelligent Buildings A lighting management system requires most or all of the following characteristics to be considered part of an intelligent building framework: –Centrally manageable through front-end software; –Based on TCP/IP or other open protocol; –Capable of sharing a common IP backbone with other building systems; –Capable of exchanging data with building management or energy management systems in a seamless manner; –Granular fixture level lighting control 37

38 Conclusions – Conventional Lighting Controls With conventional lighting control technologies, it is impossible to implement multiple energy management strategies –Consequently, the aggregate energy saving potential with conventional lighting control is generally limited to one energy management strategy at a time –Changes in zoning and/or energy management strategies have to be performed on the individual devices 38

39 Conclusions – Addressable Lighting Controls Addressable dimming lighting controls, on the other hand, –Allow simultaneous use of all six energy management strategies by using networked addressable controls –Meet the specification for “Intelligent Buildings” –Allow the entire control system managed through graphical user interface (GUI) based front- end software In other words, remote re-zoning and changes in energy management strategies can be performed with just a mouse click instead of manipulation at the device level Participation in the “Energy Demand Management” program –Provide superior energy savings (50% - 75%) as compared to conventional lighting controls –Contribute towards LEED points ( points) in multiple categories –Provide advanced load shedding capabilities by aggregating multiple building loads to execute demand response –Improve workplace ergonomics by providing the right amount of light where and when required. 39

40 References 40 1.“Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future” report commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy 2.HVAC Systems Design Handbook by Roger W. Haines 3.“Considering Lighting System Performance and HVAC interactions in Lighting Retrofit Analysis”: E. Franconi & F. Rubinstein, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 4.“Integrated Lighting Approach Saves Energy in Post Office Facilities”, Jeffrey C. Mitchell, Michael J. Siminovitch, Eric R. Page, Kevin W. Gauna, and Douglas A. Avery, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 5.“Energy Saving Lighting Control Systems for Open plan Offices: A Field Study”, Anca D. GALAŞIU1, Guy R. NEWSHAM 1, Cristian ŞUVĂGĂU 2, Daniel M. SANDER 3 1 National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, Indoor Environment Program; 2 BC Hydro, Technology Solutions Power Smart; 3 National Research Council Canada (retired) 6.“Wireless Networked Lighting Systems for Optimizing Energy Savings and User Satisfaction”, Yao-Jung Wen, Alice M. Agogino, IEEE Publications. 7.“Comparison of Control Options in Private Offices in an Advanced Lighting Controls Testbed”, Judith D. Jennings 1, Francis M. Rubinstein 1, Dennis DiBartolomeo 1, Steven L. Blanc 2 1 Building Technologies Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; 2 Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Customer Energy Management Dept., Research & Development Group. 8.“Specifier Reports”, Photosensors, National Lighting Product Information Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 9.“An analysis of the energy and cost savings potential of occupancy sensors for commercial lighting systems”, Bill VonNeida 1, Dorene Maniccia 2, Allan Tweed 2 1 Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR Buildings Program. 10.“Effect of dimming control on office worker satisfaction and performance”, Guy Newsham, Jennifer Veitch, Chantal Arsenault, Cara Duval, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada 11.“Energy savings due to occupancy sensors and personal controls: A pilot field study”, Anca D. Galasiu and Guy R. Newsham, Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada 12.“Energy savings for Load shedding ballasts for fluorescent lighting systems”, Yukio Akashi, Jason Neches, Andy Bierman, Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 13.“How to Select Lighting Controls for Offices and Public Buildings”, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Federal Energy Management Program, December “Tips for Daylighting with Windows”, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 15.Deep dive into Deeper Savings”, CEE Winter 2020 Meeting, presentation by Thor Scordelis, Dave Alexander, Pacific Gas and Electric Company Lighting Team. 16.“Demand-responsive Lighting – A Field Study”, Guy Newsham and Benjamin Birt, National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC) 17.“Research Matters”, Guy Newsham, National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), published in LD+A, Illiminating Engineering Society journal. 18.“Advanced Lighting Guidelines”, 2003; New Buildings Institute, White Salmon, WA “Lighting Quality and Office Work: A Field Simulation Study”, Peter R. Boyce 1, Jennifer A. Veitch 2, Guy R. Newsham 2, Michael Myer 1, Claudia Hunter 1, Prepared for US Dept. of Energy by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 1 Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; 2 Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada. 20.“Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study”, Francis Rubinstein, Sila Kiliccote, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 21.“Energy Efficiency Perspectives: Intelligent Networks and The Challenge of Zero Energy Buildings” by Stephen Selkowitz, Head of the Department, Building Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 22.U. S. Department of Energy, Building Energy Codes, Online training program 23.“Integrated Lighting Approach Saves Energy in Post Office Facilities”, Jeffrey C. Mitchell, Michael J. Siminovitch, Eric R. Page, Kevin W. Gauna, and Douglas A. Avery, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 24.National Institute of Building Sciences 25.CISCO’s Connected Real Estate group

41 41 Course Evaluations In order to maintain high-quality learning experiences, please access the evaluation for this course by logging into CES Discovery and clicking on the Course Evaluation link on the left side of the page.

42 This concludes The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Course Name Title  Phone #  address

43 Many Thanks.

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