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The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Chapter 11.

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1 The Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Chapter 11

2 The Election of 1800  Republican electors, attempting to name both a President and a Vice President from their own party, cast a tie vote between Jefferson and Aaron Burr  Hamilton, disliking both Jefferson and Burr, nevertheless urged Jefferson's election  Congress chooses Jefferson

3 Jefferson  Different concept of role of Govt  Walked to inaugural  Many feared worst  “Vile, Godless”  “Worthless, dishonest”  Federalists feared massive change towards mob rule  Adams refused to attend inaugural  Attempt to reassure “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”  Caps added later (draft used lower case, Jefferson meant it as a philosophical distinction), media probably saw it as partisan statement about blending parties  Wanted to govern a united people  Much more activist than Adams  Followed by Madison and Monroe of similar opinions  Federalists gone by 1820 as a party of national significance

4 Jefferson (cont.)  Personally very different from previous Presidents  Deist, doubted many Christian doctrines  Early support of French Revolution controversial  Fathered children (at least one, per DNA analysis) by Sally Hemings (slave at Monticello) - interesting fact, Sally herself was the daughter of Jefferson’s father in law, and light enough to pass for white  Conflicted, slave owner, believed slavery could not endure in America

5 Jefferson’s Political Positions  Feared high taxes, standing Army and political corruption threatened American Liberty  Government as servant of the people vice master  Believed farmers most virtuous, honest, cities breeding grounds of deceit, self interest  Saw his election as “revolution”  To restore liberty, tranquility of his youth  Angered by Hamilton financial nationalism and Adams’ Alien and Sedition Acts  Disliked the concept of a national debt  Placed economy ahead of national military preparedness (cut Army size, funding)  Did use Navy effectively against Barbary pirates in 1801 (explain), but that was also an economic decision (war cost about half of annual tribute pre-war)

6 Judiciary Issues  No Republicans on Federal Bench  Federal Judiciary Act of 1801 last straw (decreased justices from 6 to 5, passed by a still Federalist dominated Congress), would have kept Jeff. From appointing a Justice (who would of course have been Republican)  Act also created 16 new Federal judgeships, all filled by Adams with Federalists just before leaving office to assure Jefferson would have to deal with Federal judiciary controlled by federalists  “midnight appointments”  Jefferson won Congressional repeal of Act in 1802 after new Congress convened

7 Marbury v. Madison  Marbury last minute Federalist Justice of peace appointment for D.C., appointment was not delivered by Adams before term expired  New Sec of State (Madison) refused to deliver appointment  Marbury petitioned Supreme Court for a writ forcing delivery of appointment  Decision written by (ardent Federalist and Chief Justice) John Marshall  Several landmark issues  Marshall lectured Madison (and through him, his boss, Jefferson) on the “Moral” duty to deliver the appointment, enraging Jefferson

8 Marbury v. Madison (cont.)  Jefferson also refused to order delivery on grounds that the Act granting Supreme Court the right to issue such a writ was “repugnant to the Constitution, and as such is no law”  “unconstitutional”  Established principle of Judicial review (That the Court could declare an Act of Congress void if it violated their interpretation of Constitutionality  Brought Court to equal status with Executive and Legislative branches  “checks and balances”

9 Impeachment as Judicial Control  Republicans tried to remove two Federal judges through impeachment  one (Pickering) was insane and an alcoholic  other (Chase) was Supreme Court Justice  Had been extremely partisan against Republicans using Sedition Act of 1798  Not guilty of crime or other impeachable offense, just repugnant to the new majority Republicans  Pickering was removed, Chase wasn’t  no more Federal Judge impeachment for 50 years

10 The Louisiana Purchase  Spain ceded Louisiana to France (and Napoleon), 1800, new fears in America  Would Brits (Canada) and French, limit growth of America?  Would Brits refuse French cooperation (likely) and seize New Orleans (and Louisiana) before French could take control?  Reality: Napoleon wanted a French Caribbean empire centered on St. Domingue, using Louisiana as source of food and supply  Slave revolt in St. Domingue (Santo Domingo) led by Toussaint L’Overture made this problematic  Malaria and rebelling slaves made it impossible

11 The Problem  All western produce and commerce was down Mississippi/Ohio system to Gulf for transport  Needed to unload at New Orleans for transport via ocean going ships  1802 - Spanish colonial administrator revoked the right of deposit for US cargos at New Orleans (most assumed Napoleon had issued the order, he had not)

12 The Solution  Jefferson nominates Monroe and Livingston to negotiate with France for New Orleans and as much of Louisiana and Spanish Florida as they could get  Napoleon decides new Caribbean Empire isn’t worth human cost and needs $ for renewed European hostilities, decides to sell all of Louisiana  Price settled at 15 million dollars (3 ½ cents/acre)  Jefferson doubts constitutionality of the purchase asks for amendment authorizing purchase, and controlling settlement in the new land  No one else shares the concern, (except some token Federalist concern that the new land might decrease importance their eastern seaport strongholds) amendment is dropped, land purchase made, doubling size of the United States


14 Lewis and Clark  Corps of Discovery  Meriwether Lewis (Crash courses in Botany, zoology, astronomy), Jefferson’s personal secretary  William Clark - career Army officer, second in charge

15 Mission: Explore as far west as possible  Seek water route across continent  Explore/catalogue geographical, zoological, mineralogical nature of new land  Up Miss/Missouri system to Yellowstone, over Bitterroot range of Rockies to Snake River to Columbia to the pacific at (now) Astoria, Washington  Spent winter at Fort Clatsop, returned 1806, with maps, drawings, specimens.  One death of 50 members - of a ruptured appendix!  Helped by Sacagawea, Shoshone wife of Charbonneau, French trapper

16 Election of 1804  Burr dumped from ticket by party, 12th amendment passed 1804, largely due to Burr’s tying up the election of 1800 in the House  Federalists are crushed, losing even Massachusetts  Beginning of end for Federalists as viable party

17 Burr and Hamilton  Plans for “Northern Confederacy” (NY, New England states, PA) brainchild of “High (extreme) Federalists”, Burr and Sen. Pickering of Mass.  Remember Aaron Burr was Republican Vice President under Jefferson in first term  With Burr as leader, plan to get Burr elected Governor of New York as first step  Burr thwarted again by Hamilton, who allowed publishing of his (Hamilton’s) “despicable” opinion of Burr’s character, leading to Burr’s defeat in NY gubernatorial race  Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, killed him, July 11, 1804

18 More Trouble for Burr  Next, Burr conspired with corrupt Louisiana territorial governor (Wilkinson) and Irish Immigrant planter Harman Blennerhassett to form states South of the Ohio into a Southern Confederacy, independent from the U.S.  Burr deserted by Wilkinson  Burr caught, tried for treason  Chief Justice Marshall insisted upon strict reading of treason per Constitution  Jefferson irate, wanted Burr hanged  Verdict recorded by Marshall as “not guilty”  Burr flees to Europe where he made even more enemies

19 The Embargo Act, 1807 (the original really really bad idea)  Jefferson’s solution to foreign trade issues  prohibited exports from US ports  minor damage to British and French sales worldwide  huge negative impact on US economy  30,000 seamen out of work  US exports down 50% in one year  many merchants in bankruptcy  many blamed Jefferson  agricultural exports down to almost nothing  The Embargo reflected Jefferson’s lack of appreciation for the essentiality of foreign trade to New England’s Economy

20 Election of 1808  even though embargo angered many, James Madison was elected (also Republican, also Virginian, friend of Jefferson)  James Madison (5 ft 4 compared to Jefferson’s 6 ft 2 in)  equally intellectual, realized Agricultural exports critical to nation’s trade survival  1809 - Embargo Act replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809)  weaker than the Embargo  authorized Congress to restore trade with either if they restored neutral rights, neither bought it  Macon’s Bill (number 2)  Opened trade with French and British, promised if either removed their blockage of Neutral shipping (the US ships) they would stop trading with the other nation

21 Foreign Policy Under Madison  The first year of Madison's Administration, the United States prohibited trade with Britain and France  May, 1810, Congress authorized trade with both, directing the President, if either would accept America's view of neutral rights, to forbid trade with the other nation  Napoleon pretended to comply  Late in 1810, Madison proclaimed non-intercourse with Great Britain  "War Hawks," pressed for a more militant policy  British impressment and seizure of cargoes impelled Madison to give in  June 1, 1812, he asked Congress to declare war

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