Presentation on theme: "The Age of Jefferson, 1800-1816. The Capitol Building c.1800."— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Jefferson, 1800-1816
The Capitol Building c.1800
Jeffersonian Philosophy Strict interpretation of Constitution=weak central gov’t Small gov’t and less taxes Agricultural society Sided with the French
Louisiana Purchase France secretly acquired territory in 1800 Napoleon willing to sell for war $ Mission sent to buy N.O. Bought the whole territory for $15 million Purchasing land not mentioned in Constitution…
The Louisiana Purchase
Lewis and Clark lead the
Into the Unknown…
Vice President Aaron Burr “Northern Confederacy” Split from Rep. party Rivalry leads to a duel between Burr and Hamilton Hamilton killed, Burr in exile Plotted to form his own empire in the LA territory
John Marshall’s Court (1801-1835) Sought to increase Court’s and fed. gov’t power Federalist ideas Marbury v. Madison Judicial review McCullough v. Maryland Implied powers
Supreme Court Chambers
Neutral Rights, Impressment, Embargo Jefferson cut the size of the military by more than half French and British both threaten US ships on high seas British impress American citizens (Chesapeake-Leonard Affair) Jefferson decides to abandon all trade with the Embargo Act
The Embargo Act 1807
No foreign trade at all Economic slump begins Embargo-runners emerge Liability for Rep. party
James and Dolley Madison
James Madison Jefferson’s Secretary of State Most intelligent of Founding Fathers “Father of the Constitution” Won 1808 and 1812 elections
The War of 1812: Causes US desired Spanish Florida (Spain and England allied) British impressment Secure a foreign market for US crops “War Hawks” Clay-Speaker of the House Calhoun-leading Rep.
Vision of the War Hawks
Fighting Begins Britain distracted by Napoleon until 1813 Invasion of Canada fails Harrison defeats Tecumseh Jackson ravages Indians in Florida
America Impression of British-Indian Alliance
The Burning of Washington
Hartford Convention Opposition grows as war enters 1815 Federalists in New England meet Considered secession, listed grievances Right of nullification stated After New Orleans, convention looks absurd and the Federalists disappear
Criticism of Hartford Convention
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent 1814 Signed before the Battle of New Orleans Did NOT address impressment (the alleged cause of the war) No real changes from 1812 Simply stopped the fighting Led to other treaties Rush-Bagot disarmed the Great Lakes Economic agreements
Battle of New Orleans
Made a hero of Andrew Jackson Over 2,000 casualties for British, about 20 for US Biggest highlight of the war
Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy As a unique American culture developed, so did a sense of nationalism. Nationalism replaced the tendency toward sectionalism. These feelings were soon reflected in government policies. John Marshall, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1801– 1835) –His court made two key rulings that reflected growing feelings of nationalism and strengthened the national government. McCulloch v. Maryland: This case pitted the state of Maryland against the national government. In his ruling, Marshall made it clear that national interests were to be put above state interests. Gibbons v. Ogden: Marshall ruled that national law was superior to state law.
Nationalism Influences Domestic Policy The American System Nationalistic domestic policy of the early 1800s championed by Henry Clay included: –a tariff to protect American industries –the sale of government lands to raise money for the national government –the maintenance of a national bank –government funding of internal improvements or public projects such as roads and canals
Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy American foreign policy in the early 1800s also reflected the feelings of nationalism. In 1816 voters elected James Monroe to the presidency. During his presidency, the economy grew rapidly, and a spirit of nationalism and optimism prevailed—”Era of Good Feelings.”
Nationalism Guides Foreign Policy Successful diplomacy abroad Rush-Bagot Treaty (1818): treaty with Britain that called for the nearly complete disarmament of the eastern part of the border between the United States and British Canada During the Convention of 1818, Monroe also convinced Britain to draw the western part of the border between the United States and Canada along the 49th parallel. Adams-Onís Treaty (1819): the United States acquired Florida and established a firm boundary between the Louisiana Territory and Spanish territory farther to the west.
The Monroe Doctrine Some Spanish colonies in Central and South America declared their independence President Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams declared a new policy, known as the Monroe Doctrine. It declared the Americas off limits to European colonization. American lawmakers wanted to deter any foreign country from taking lands in the Americas that the United States might someday claim.
The Missouri Compromise Missouri Compromise of 1820: agreement under which Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine was to be admitted as a free state The agreement also banned slavery in the northern part of the Louisiana Territory. The Missouri Compromise kept the balance between slave and free states.