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Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age

2 Prejudice Based on Gender-Based Stereotypes Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Prejudice Ageism

3 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Based Stereotypes American culture has established set of beliefs men and women, traits and roles Gender belief system Content of this belief system is conveyed through –media –Parents and peers influences

4 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Based Stereotypes American culture has established set of beliefs men and women, traits and roles Gender belief system Content of this belief system is conveyed through –media –Parents and peers influences

5 GENDER BELIEF SYSTEM Gender stereotypes Beliefs about sexual orientation Perceptions of role violators Beliefs about one’s own gender roles Gender role attitudes Gender Belief System Learning about gender begins early in life and continues throughout the life span

6 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System encompasses Stereotype content Attitudes toward appropriate roles for women and men Perceptions of those who violate gender-based expectations

7 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System—Stereotypes Males Traits Clusters of Component—agentic or instrumental »Independent »Strong »Self-confident

8 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System—Stereotypes Females Traits Clusters of Component—communal or expressive »Warmth—expressiveness »emotional »helpful »kind

9 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-associated Belief Multidimensional—encompassing ideas about women’s and men’s –physical characteristic –role –cognitive abilities –emotions –traits

10 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System Ideas about appropriate emotions for the sexes Women experience and express more emotions than men Men experience and express anger and pride

11 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System Gender polarization—gender-associated characteristics are bipolar, people believe what is masculine is not feminine and that what is feminine is not masculine Influences assumptions about an individual’s sexual orientation

12 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System Evaluative dimension of attitudes towards social groups Women are wonderful effect Research shows that people associated with social categories women and men actually shows a bias in favor of women Implicit attitudes toward women and men in the use of language

13 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-Belief System Evaluative dimension of attitudes towards social groups Discrimination-affection paradox –Discrimination women face is more subtle, than with men –Subtypes of Women and Men

14 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-related categorization Subtypes—categories that are subordinate to the more basic categories of sex, race, and age Major subtypes can be grouped in to categories such as Occupation Family roles Physical features, sexuality macho man

15 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Gender-related categorization Attitudes toward women’s rights and responsibility—has been positive as a social group Attitudes towards subtypes of women in nontraditional roles

16 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Hostile and Benevolent Sexism Dimensions of modern sexism Hostile Benevolent

17 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Women in Leadership Roles Role congruity theory –Less likely to succeed in leadership roles –Social role theory –Women are communal/no agentic traits –Higher probability of negative evaluations –Violates what women leaders should be like Women in faculty roles Women's chances of success

18 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Prejudice Stereotypes of Lesbians and Gay men Sexual orientation hypothesis Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay men Sex Differences in anti-gay prejudice Attitudes toward bisexuals Civil rights attitudes Heterosexism in the Workplace

19 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Ageism –When does old age begin –Beliefs about older adults –Double standard of aging –Subtypes of older adults –Forgetfulness stereotype –Age-Based Discrimination –Workplace discrimination

20 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age The cluster of traits that represent stereotypes of men is called –agentic. –communal. –expressive. –benevolent.

21 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age The cluster of traits that represent stereotypes of men is called –agentic. (p. 346 ) –communal. –expressive. –benevolent.

22 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Which emotion is more strongly associated with men than with women? a) guilt b) sadness c) pride d) fear

23 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Which emotion is more strongly associated with men than with women? a) guilt b) sadness c) pride ( p. 348) d) fear

24 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Research on the accuracy of gender stereotypes shows that a)they can be correctly applied at both the individual and the group level. b)there is no overlap between the characteristics men and women used to describe themselves. c)at the group level, people are fairly accurate observers of women’s and men’s actual characteristics. d)stereotypes usually lead to discrimination against women and men.

25 Prejudice Based on Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Age Research on the accuracy of gender stereotypes shows that a)they can be correctly applied at both the individual and the group level. b)there is no overlap between the characteristics men and women used to describe themselves. c)at the group level, people are fairly accurate observers of women’s and men’s actual characteristics. (p.350) d)stereotypes usually lead to discrimination against women and men.


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