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Chapter 5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

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1 Chapter 5 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

2 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 2 What Is a Group? Two or more people perceived as having at least one of the following characteristics: –Direct interactions with each other over a period of time –Joint membership in a social category based on sex, race, or other attributes –A shared, common fate, identity, or set of goals We see people in fundamentally different ways if we see them as a group rather than individuals.

3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 3 Defining Important Terms Stereotypes: Beliefs that associate a whole group of people with certain traits. Prejudice: Negative feelings about others because of their connection to a social group. Discrimination: Negative behaviors directed against persons because of their membership in a particular group.

4 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 4 Figure 5.1: Perceiving Groups: Three Reactions

5 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 5 Stereotypes

6 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 6 How Stereotypes Form: Social Categorization The classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes. –Helps us form impressions quickly and use past experiences to guide new interactions. Serious drawback: By categorizing people, we often: –Overestimate the differences between groups –Underestimate the differences within groups

7 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 7 How Stereotypes Form: Ingroups vs. Outgroups Strong tendency to divide people into ingroups and outgroups. Consequences –Exaggerate differences between ingroups and other outgroups –Outgroup homogeneity effect

8 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 8 Why Are Outgroups Seen As Homogeneous? Often do not notice subtle differences among outgroups because have little personal contact with them. Often do not encounter a representative sample of outgroup members.

9 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 9 Sociocultural and Motivational Factors Why are some categorizations more likely to dominate our perceptions than others? Sociocultural factors influence what types of categorizations dominate perceptions of others. Motivational factors can also affect how people categorize others.

10 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 10 Implicit Personal Theories About Groups Entity Theorists: See groups in terms of traits. –Expect more similarity and consistency within groups –Process information about groups similarly to how process information about a single person Incremental Theorists: Less likely to see a group in trait terms.

11 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 11 Are Stereotypes Ever Accurate? What is meant by “accurate”? Even when based on reality, tend to exaggerate differences and understate similarities between groups. Stereotyping is a dynamic process.

12 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 12 How Stereotypes Survive: Illusory Correlations The tendency for people to overestimate the link between variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated. Tend to overestimate the association between variables when: –The variables are distinctive –The variables are already expected to go together

13 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 13 Table 5.1: The Illusory Correlation

14 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 14 How Stereotypes Survive: Attributions Attributional biases can perpetuate stereotypes. –Fundamental attribution error revisited If expectations are violated, more likely to consider situational factors.

15 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 15 How Stereotypes Survive: Subtyping and Contrast Effects Stereotypes stubbornly survive disconfirmation through “subtyping.” If behavior varies considerably from expectations, the perceived difference may be magnified. –Contrast effect

16 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 16 How Stereotypes Survive: Confirmation Biases Stereotypes are often maintained and strengthened through confirmation biases. Stereotypes can cause a perceiver to act in such a way that the stereotyped group member really does behave in a stereotype-confirming way. –The stereotype creates a “self-fulfilling prophecy.”

17 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 17 Figure 5.2: “White Men Can’t Jump”? Stone et al., 1997.

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 18 Very brief exposure to a member of a stereotyped group does not lead to biased judgments or responses, but longer exposure typically does. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

19 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 19 Stereotypes as (Sometimes) Automatic Devine (1989): We become highly aware of the contents of many stereotypes through sociocultural mechanisms. –Awareness can lead to its automatic activation when exposed to a member of stereotyped group. Can influence behavior even when we do not consciously endorse the stereotype.

20 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 20 What Factors Can Influence Stereotype Activation? Amount of exposure to the stereotype The kind and amount of information the perceiver encounters The perceiver’s motivational goals –e.g., protecting one’s self-esteem or self-image

21 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 21 Figure 5.3: Motivated Stereotype Inhibition and Activation From L. Sinclair and Z. Kunda "Reactions to a Black Professional: Motivated Inhibition and Activation of Conflicting Stereotypes," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, Copyright (c) by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission..

22 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 22 Table 5.2: Automatic Stereotype Activation: Important Factors

23 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 23 Overcoming Stereotypes How much personal information do we have about someone? What is our cognitive ability to focus on an individual member of a stereotyped group? What is our motivation level to form an accurate impression of someone? How motivated are we to avoid applying negative stereotypes?

24 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 24 Amadou Diallo “41 Shots” Revisited

25 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 25 Prejudice

26 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 26 Intergroup Conflict Sherif et al.’s (1961) Robbers Cave Study –Competition between the two groups of boys led to hostility and conflict. –Only through superordinate goals was peace restored between the two groups. Simplest explanation for many intergroup conflicts is competition.

27 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 27 Realistic Conflict Theory The theory that hostility between groups is caused by direct competition for limited resources. –The competition for resources may be more imagined than real. –People may become resentful of other groups because of a sense of relative deprivation. –Even if one doesn’t feel personally threatened, perceptions of threat to one’s own group can trigger prejudice.

28 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 28 Members of low-status, stereotyped groups have lower self-esteem than members of high- status groups. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

29 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 29 Figure 5.5: Social Identity Theory

30 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 30 Basic Predictions of Social Identity Theory Threats to one’s self-esteem heighten the need for ingroup favoritism. Expressions of ingroup favoritism enhance one’s self-esteem.

31 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 31 Figure 5.6: Self-Esteem and Social Identity Fein & Spencer, 1997.

32 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 32 What Situational Factors Influence Social Identity Motives? Degree of ingroup identification The relative size and distinctiveness of one’s ingroup The person’s status relative to others in the ingroup –Most motivated to derogate outsiders when ingroup status is marginal.

33 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 33 Cultural Differences and Social Identity Motives Collectivists less likely to show biases favoring their ingroups in order to boost their self-esteem. But collectivists may draw sharper distinctions between ingroup and outgroup members.

34 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 34 Reactions to Low Status How do people cope with ingroups of low status or with weak ingroup members? To preserve the integrity of the ingroup, may treat less able people more harshly. May de-emphasize the importance of domains in which the ingroup is relatively low in status.

35 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 35 Implicit Theories and Ideologies People vary in their ideologies about intergroup relations in society. Social Dominance Orientation: Desire to see one’s ingroups as dominant over other groups. –Willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups

36 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 36 Sexism Prejudice and Discrimination Based on a Person’s Gender

37 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 37 Gender Stereotypes: Blue for Boys and Pink for Girls How would you describe the the typical man and woman? –Males: More adventurous, aggressive, independent, and task oriented? –Females: More sensitive, gentle, dependent, emotional, and people oriented? Gender images appear to be universal and salient to even very young children.

38 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 38 Table 5.3: What Mothers Would Say Adapted from Morrangiello & Dawber, 2000.

39 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 39 Culture and Popular Media The same mechanisms that let stereotypes in general endure apply to perceptions of gender. –e.g., illusory correlations, biased attributions, confirmation biases, and self-fulfilling prophecies But, gender stereotypes are distinctive in that they are prescriptive rather than merely descriptive.

40 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 40 Even brief exposure to sexist television commercials can significantly influence the behaviors of men and women. Answer: True… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

41 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 41 Media Images and Popular Culture Sociocultural factors foster male-female distinctions in many ways. Media depictions can influence viewers, even without their realizing it.

42 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 42 Figure 5.7: Eagly’s Social Role Theory of Gender Stereotypes

43 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 43 Ambivalent Sexism Consists of two elements: –Hostile sexism, characterized by negative, resentful feelings about women’s abilities, values and ability to challenge men’s power –Benevolent sexism, characterized by affectionate, chivalrous, but potentially patronizing feelings of women needing and deserving protection

44 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 44 Figure 5.8: Hostile Sexism Across Countries Data from Glick, based on author correspondence.

45 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 45 Table 5.4: Hostile Sexism Across Countries

46 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 46 Table 5.5: Gender Differences in Specific Occupations in the United States

47 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 47 Racism Prejudice and Discrimination Based on a Person’s Racial Background

48 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 48 Where Racism Exists At the individual level –Any one can be racist toward anyone else. At the institutional and cultural levels –Some people are privileged while others are discriminated against.

49 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 49 Table 5.6: Changes in Overt Racism

50 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 50 Modern Racism A subtle form of prejudice that surfaces in direct ways whenever it is safe, socially acceptable, or easy to rationalize Based on idea that many people are racially ambivalent –Can lead to subtle, often unconscious forms of prejudice and discrimination

51 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 51 How Can Implicit Racism Be Detected and Measured? Fazio et al.’s (1995) bona fide pipeline measure Greenwald et al.’s (1998) Implicit Association Test (IAT) Nosek & Banaji’s (2001) Go/No-Go Association Task (GNAT)

52 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 52 Interracial Perceptions and Interactions Particularly challenging and fraught with tension because: –Less contact –Stronger negative emotions –Anxiety about appearing racist Emotional reactions can be influenced by racial labels and implicit racism. –Differential responses found in the amygdala

53 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 53 Figure 5.10, Colorblind?

54 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 54 A Threat in the Air Effects on Targets of Stereotypes and Prejudice

55 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 55 Perceiving Discrimination What if you were a target of a stigmatizing stereotype? Such suspicions can be deeply frustrating over time. –But they can have both positive and negative consequences in particular situations.

56 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 56 Costs of Attributions of Negative Feedback to Discrimination The attribution may be inaccurate. –One misses an opportunity to learn information relevant for self-improvement. Although it can protect one’s overall self-esteem, it can also make people feel as if they have less control over their lives. –This can make the person feel worse, not better.

57 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 57 An African-American student is likely to perform worse on an athletic task if the task is described as one reflecting sports intelligence than if it described as reflecting natural athletic ability. Answer: True… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

58 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 58 Stereotype Threat and Academic Achievement Stereotype threat is the fear that one will be reduced to a stereotype in the eyes of others. How can stereotype threat hamper academic achievement? –The reactions to the threat can directly interfere with performance. –The threat can cause individuals to dismiss the domain as no longer relevant to their self-esteem and identity.

59 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 59 Figure 5.11: Stereotype Threat and Academic Performance From Claude Steele (1995) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, Copyright (c) 1995 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission.

60 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 60 Figure 5.12: The Swimsuit Becomes You From B.L. Fredrickson, T.A. Roberts, S.M. Noll, D.A. Quinn and J.M. Twenge (1998) "That Swimsuit Becomes You: Sex differences in Self-Objectification, Restrained Eating, and Math Performance," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, Copyright (c) 1998 by the American Psychological Association. Reprinted with permission.

61 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 61 Diversity of Stereotype Threats Can affect any group for which strong, well- known negative stereotypes are relevant in particular settings. Whether one feels threatened or emboldened by a stereotype depends on which social identity has been activated. One does not need to believe in a negative stereotype for it to have an effect.

62 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 62 Reducing Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination

63 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 63 Groups with a history of prejudice towards each other tend to become much less prejudiced soon after they are made to interact with each other in a desegregated setting. Answer: False… Let’s see why! Putting Common Sense to the Test…

64 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 64 Intergroup Contact Allport’s contact hypothesis –Under certain conditions, direct contact between hostile groups will reduce prejudice. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) –What would be the effect of this large-scale social experiment?

65 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 65 Review of Studies Conducted During and After Desegregation

66 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 66 Table 5.7: The Contact Hypothesis: Conditions

67 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 67 The Jigsaw Classroom A cooperative learning method used to reduce racial prejudice through interaction in group efforts. Model of how to use interpersonal contact to promote greater tolerance of diversity.

68 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.5 | 68 Common Ingroup Identity Model Through decategorization, people pay less attention to categories and intergroup boundaries. Through recategorization, individuals may change their conceptions of the group so that they have a more inclusive, diverse sense of their own ingroup.


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