2 Race: Myth and Reality Myth 1— Idea That Any Race is Superior All Races Have Geniuses and IdiotsHitler, Hutus and Tutsis, Serbia practiced genocide (systematic attempt to annihilate a people because of their race and ethnicity)Myth 2—Idea that Any Race is PureAnthropologists and biologists can’t even agree how many races there are (2- 2,000)Human Characteristics Flow Endlessly togetherIdea of race is a powerful force in everyday lives
3 Ethnic GroupsRace has little meaning biologically due to interbreeding in the human population.Socially constructed reality, not a biological oneEthnicity refers to cultural characteristicsCommon AncestryCultural HeritageNations of OriginIn an ethnic enclave, people interact with others in their ethnic group and feel a sense of shared identity
4 Minority and Dominant Groups Minority Group— a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributesPeople singled out for unequal treatment and regard themselves as objects of discriminationMinority Group can be racial or ethnicMinority group not necessarily numerical minority
5 Minority and Dominant Groups Dominant Group— group with most…PowerPrivilegesHighest Social StatusView minority group as inferiorGroup has shared physical and cultural traits
6 Emergence of Minority Groups Minority groups occur because of…Expansion of Political Boundaries- when a group expands it incorporates people with different cultures, languages into same political entity and discriminates against them (Native Americans)Migration- people move from one place to another and become minority (Latinos, Africans) can be voluntary and involuntary
7 Shared Characteristics of Minority Groups Membership is an ascribed statusPhysical or cultural traits held in low esteem by dominant groupUnequal treatmentMarry within own groupFeel strong group solidarity
8 Constructing Racial-Ethnic Identity Feel firm boundaries between “us” and “them”Size of group, power, appearance, degree of discrimination heighten or reduce ethnic identitySome people have a strong sense of this identity some have a low senseEthnic Work- ideas designed to discover, enhance and maintain ethnic and racial identification
9 PrejudiceA negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groupsEthnocentrism: tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standardStereotypes: overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories
10 Prejudice and Discrimination Common throughout the worldDiscrimination is an actionUnfair treatment directed toward someoneRacial discrimination is racismDiscrimination results from prejudiceAttitude (usually negative, can be positive)Based on race, religion, etc.Ku Klux Klan and Neo-Nazis
11 Prejudice and Discrimination Learning Prejudice- not born with prejudice, learn it from those around us. People that are prejudice against one group are usually prejudiced against other groupsInternalizing Dominant Norms- prejudice against your own group- African- Americans and skin color (internalize norms of dominant group)Implicit Association Test by Anthony Greenwald word association equal with both blacks and whites
12 Extent of PrejudiceEach Racial-Ethnic group views other groups as inferior in some wayDislike of one group associated with dislike of other groupsOlder, less educated more prejudiced
13 Two Major Categories of Discrimination Individual Discrimination- negative treatment of one person by another (isolate and small group)Institutional Discrimination- negative treatment of a group that is built into societies institutions (direct and indirect)
14 Four Types of Discrimination Isolate discrimination A prejudiced judge giving harsher sentences to African American defendantsSmall-group discrimination Small group of white students defacing a professor’s office with racist epithetsDirect institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodationsIndirect institutionalized discrimination Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping
15 Home Mortgage and Car Loans Black and Latinos are more likely to be turned down for a loan, pay higher interest rates
16 Theories of PrejudicePsychological Perspectives of Prejudice Aggression theory- Prejudice is the result of frustration, people find group to blame they become the scapegoat (usually a racial, ethnic or religious minority) Frustration –Aggression Hypothesis- The view that frustration, or failure to reach a certain desired goal due to circumstance, often leads to aggression, or behavior which intends harm. Authoritarian Personality- Adorno study (1950) concluded highly prejudiced people are insecure conformists, respect of authority and submissive to superiors, have a strong sense of right and wrong Anxious when confronted with norms and values different than their own
17 Sociological Perspectives Functionalism- (large group relationships) social environment can be arranged to generate positive or negative feelings about people . Prejudice is dysfunctional to a society, destroys human relationshipsPrejudice is functional because it can create in- group solidarityConflict Theory- (large group relationships) arrangements benefit those with powerCapitalists keep workers divided and insecure (fear of unemployment) exploit racial and ethnic strife (can make gains only at the expense of others)
18 Symbolic Interactionism Labels Create Prejudice- when we apply labels to groups we see its members as all alikeSymbolic Interactionists- labels we learn effect the ways we see people, cause selective perceptionContact Hypothesis Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members have equal status, purse same goals and cooperate, and receive positive feedback during interactionSelf-Fulfilling Prophesy- stereotypes and labels can produce behavior depicted in the stereotype. Places limits on the other group and this attitude creates a self fulfilling prophesy
19 Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations Six basic patterns that characterize the relationship of dominant and minority groupsGenocide – labels allow us to compartmentalize groups and separate moral action and regard groups as inferiorPopulation Transfer- two types indirect and directInternal Colonialism- countries dominant group exploits a minority group for economic advantage
20 Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 4. Segregation- formal separation of racial or ethnic groups, allows dominant group to maintain social distance yet exploit minority group5. Assimilation- minority group is absorbed into dominant culture(two types-forced, permissible)6. Multiculturalism- encourages and permits racial variation. Minority groups maintain identity, participate in countries social institutions
22 A Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred?Does it dry upLike a raisin in the sun?Or fester like a sore --And then run?Does it stink like rotten meat?Or crust and sugar over --like a syrupy sweet?Maybe it just sagslike a heavy load.Or does it explode?
23 Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice Two types of responses to being consistently hated--Intropunitive: Hate, accepted by the minority as appropriate and deserving.Minority group member defines himself as deserving of the hatred.Cause of the hatred is seen as being a flaw within his/her own group.Extropunitive: The hate, rejected by the minority as inappropriate and undeserved.Minority group defines the majority as the reason for the hatredFlaw is in the character of the majority, not the minority.
24 Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice IntropunitiveAgreeing with the majority -- The stereotypes and prescriptions accepted.In-group aggression -- The minority group member attacks (physically or verbally) himself, his group, or members of his group who are slightly, but identifiably, different.Denial of membership -- individual simply claims to belong to some other group or he changes his appearance somehow to soften his membership.Symbolic status striving -- Having little or no socially accepted status within himself, the member seeks some external source of status.Withdrawal and passivity -- The victim of the hate - frustrated with his status - gives up, retreats, becomes a non-person.
25 Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice Extropunitive Militancy -- The member fights back unfair hatred either physically or otherwise.Enhanced striving -- acknowledge the fact that the majority is not willing to accept him at face value, the member of a minority resolves himself to attain perfection, to give the hostile groups no avenue of attack.Slyness and cunning -- Member uses less acceptable ways to out-wit or fool the majority. He becomes street wise rather than getting a Ph.D.In-group cohesion -- Realizing that the majority is hostile, the minority group members become more reliant on the protection and support of others like themselves. They "circle the wagons" in anticipation of attack.Obsessive concern -- After having experienced the hatred, some members may experience something similar to group paranoia: they see the hatred even in places where it may not exist.
26 Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States Major ethnic groups in the USEuropean AmericansLatinosAfrican AmericansAsian AmericansNative Americans
27 Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States European AmericansExtremely ethnocentricLooked down on people without English ancestryForced immigrants to assimilate to their “ways” to fit inEthnic groups give up culture to conform
28 Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States LatinosLargest ethnic minority groupMajority from MexicoSpanish language defines Latinos from other groups, growth of Spanish in US has caused backlash in some areasLarge cultural, class differences between country of originDiversity has inhibited unity, causes political underrepresentationMany Latinos experience economic disadvantagesCubans typically better off, Puerto Ricans lowest on indicators of well being
30 Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States African AmericansFaced long history of racism (slavery to segregation to modern discrimination)Civil Rights Movement improved conditions of African AmericansEnd of forced segregation, legal discriminationRecently gains in income, education, politicsWilliam Julius Wilson- social class has replaced race as determinant of quality of life for African AmericansImprovement through getting better paying jobsSome sociologists claim this analysis overlooks discrimination that continues (subtle racism)
31 Asian AmericansHistory of discrimination- Anti Chinese immigration laws, forced internment of Japanese Americans during WWIIFollowing war discrimination diminishedCurrently highest median income of all ethnic groupsScore high on indicators of well beingChinese, Japanese low rates of poverty, Vietnamese high rates of povertyThree factors of success- a) family life b) education c) assimilation into mainstream culture
32 Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States Native AmericansImage distorted by mediaNot a single cultural entityDisease, warfare caused huge loss of populationAnglo-American cruelty, forced relocationWorst off of all ethnic minority groupsHigh rates of poverty, alcoholism, lower life expectancyPan-Indiamisim movement works for better life
33 Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S. In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population.In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population.By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia—not white Europe.
34 Looking toward the Future 3 major issues face society todayImmigration- America land of immigrants recently debate has intensifiedAffirmative Action- used to close economic, employment gap and to remedy past wrongsSome argue it stigmatizes people, rewards people less qualifiedMulticultural Society- ultimate goal, look beyond biological differences, allow all to participate with full social and political power