Presentation on theme: "Chapter Nine. Race: Myth and Reality Myth 1— Idea That Any Race is Superior All Races Have Geniuses and Idiots Hitler, Hutus and Tutsis, Serbia."— Presentation transcript:
Race: Myth and Reality Myth 1— Idea That Any Race is Superior All Races Have Geniuses and Idiots Hitler, Hutus and Tutsis, Serbia practiced genocide (systematic attempt to annihilate a people because of their race and ethnicity) Myth 2—Idea that Any Race is Pure Anthropologists and biologists can’t even agree how many races there are (2- 2,000) Human Characteristics Flow Endlessly together Idea of race is a powerful force in everyday lives
Ethnic Groups Race has little meaning biologically due to interbreeding in the human population. Socially constructed reality, not a biological one Ethnicity refers to cultural characteristics Common Ancestry Cultural Heritage Nations of Origin In an ethnic enclave, people interact with others in their ethnic group and feel a sense of shared identity
Minority and Dominant Groups Minority Group— a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other attributes People singled out for unequal treatment and regard themselves as objects of discrimination Minority Group can be racial or ethnic Minority group not necessarily numerical minority
Minority and Dominant Groups Dominant Group— group with most… Power Privileges Highest Social Status View minority group as inferior Group has shared physical and cultural traits
Emergence of Minority Groups Minority groups occur because of… Expansion of Political Boundaries- when a group expands it incorporates people with different cultures, languages into same political entity and discriminates against them (Native Americans) Migration- people move from one place to another and become minority (Latinos, Africans) can be voluntary and involuntary
Shared Characteristics of Minority Groups A. Membership is an ascribed status B. Physical or cultural traits held in low esteem by dominant group C. Unequal treatment D. Marry within own group E. Feel strong group solidarity
Constructing Racial-Ethnic Identity Feel firm boundaries between “us” and “them” Size of group, power, appearance, degree of discrimination heighten or reduce ethnic identity Some people have a strong sense of this identity some have a low sense Ethnic Work- ideas designed to discover, enhance and maintain ethnic and racial identification
Prejudice A negative attitude based on generalizations about members of selected racial, ethnic, or other groups Ethnocentrism: tendency to regard one’s own culture and group as the standard Stereotypes: overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories
Prejudice and Discrimination Common throughout the world Discrimination is an action Unfair treatment directed toward someone Racial discrimination is racism Discrimination results from prejudice Attitude (usually negative, can be positive) Based on race, religion, etc. Ku Klux Klan and Neo-Nazis
Prejudice and Discrimination Learning Prejudice- not born with prejudice, learn it from those around us. People that are prejudice against one group are usually prejudiced against other groups Internalizing Dominant Norms- prejudice against your own group- African- Americans and skin color (internalize norms of dominant group) Implicit Association Test by Anthony Greenwald word association equal with both blacks and whites
Extent of Prejudice Each Racial-Ethnic group views other groups as inferior in some way Dislike of one group associated with dislike of other groups Older, less educated more prejudiced
Two Major Categories of Discrimination Individual Discrimination- negative treatment of one person by another (isolate and small group) Institutional Discrimination- negative treatment of a group that is built into societies institutions (direct and indirect)
Four Types of Discrimination 1.Isolate discrimination A prejudiced judge giving harsher sentences to African American defendants 2.Small-group discrimination Small group of white students defacing a professor’s office with racist epithets 3.Direct institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color from public accommodations 4.Indirect institutionalized discrimination Special education classes may have contributed to racial stereotyping
Home Mortgage and Car Loans Black and Latinos are more likely to be turned down for a loan, pay higher interest rates
Theories of Prejudice Psychological Perspectives of Prejudice Aggression theory- Prejudice is the result of frustration, people find group to blame they become the scapegoat (usually a racial, ethnic or religious minority) Frustration –Aggression Hypothesis- The view that frustration, or failure to reach a certain desired goal due to circumstance, often leads to aggression, or behavior which intends harm. Authoritarian Personality- Adorno study (1950) concluded highly prejudiced people are insecure conformists, respect of authority and submissive to superiors, have a strong sense of right and wrong Anxious when confronted with norms and values different than their own
Sociological Perspectives Functionalism- (large group relationships) social environment can be arranged to generate positive or negative feelings about people. Prejudice is dysfunctional to a society, destroys human relationships Prejudice is functional because it can create in- group solidarity Conflict Theory- (large group relationships) arrangements benefit those with power Capitalists keep workers divided and insecure (fear of unemployment) exploit racial and ethnic strife (can make gains only at the expense of others)
Symbolic Interactionism Labels Create Prejudice- when we apply labels to groups we see its members as all alike Symbolic Interactionists- labels we learn effect the ways we see people, cause selective perception Contact Hypothesis Contact between divergent groups should be positive as long as group members have equal status, purse same goals and cooperate, and receive positive feedback during interaction Self-Fulfilling Prophesy- stereotypes and labels can produce behavior depicted in the stereotype. Places limits on the other group and this attitude creates a self fulfilling prophes y
Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations Six basic patterns that characterize the relationship of dominant and minority groups 1. Genocide – labels allow us to compartmentalize groups and separate moral action and regard groups as inferior 2. Population Transfer- two types indirect and direct 3. Internal Colonialism- countries dominant group exploits a minority group for economic advantage
Global Patterns of Intergroup Relations 4. Segregation- formal separation of racial or ethnic groups, allows dominant group to maintain social distance yet exploit minority group 5. Assimilation- minority group is absorbed into dominant culture (two types-forced, permissible) 6. Multiculturalism- encourages and permits racial variation. Minority groups maintain identity, participate in countries social institutions
A Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore -- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over -- like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?
Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice Two types of responses to being consistently hated-- Intropunitive: Hate, accepted by the minority as appropriate and deserving. Minority group member defines himself as deserving of the hatred. Cause of the hatred is seen as being a flaw within his/her own group. Extropunitive: The hate, rejected by the minority as inappropriate and undeserved. Minority group defines the majority as the reason for the hatred Flaw is in the character of the majority, not the minority.
Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice Intropunitive Agreeing with the majority -- The stereotypes and prescriptions accepted. In-group aggression -- The minority group member attacks (physically or verbally) himself, his group, or members of his group who are slightly, but identifiably, different. Denial of membership -- individual simply claims to belong to some other group or he changes his appearance somehow to soften his membership. Symbolic status striving -- Having little or no socially accepted status within himself, the member seeks some external source of status. Withdrawal and passivity -- The victim of the hate - frustrated with his status - gives up, retreats, becomes a non-person.
Gordon Allport’s The Nature of Prejudice Extropunitive Militancy -- The member fights back unfair hatred either physically or otherwise. Enhanced striving -- acknowledge the fact that the majority is not willing to accept him at face value, the member of a minority resolves himself to attain perfection, to give the hostile groups no avenue of attack. Slyness and cunning -- Member uses less acceptable ways to out-wit or fool the majority. He becomes street wise rather than getting a Ph.D. In-group cohesion -- Realizing that the majority is hostile, the minority group members become more reliant on the protection and support of others like themselves. They "circle the wagons" in anticipation of attack. Obsessive concern -- After having experienced the hatred, some members may experience something similar to group paranoia: they see the hatred even in places where it may not exist.
Major ethnic groups in the US 1. European Americans 2. Latinos 3. African Americans 4. Asian Americans 5. Native Americans Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States
European Americans Extremely ethnocentric Looked down on people without English ancestry Forced immigrants to assimilate to their “ways” to fit in Ethnic groups give up culture to conform
Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States Latinos Largest ethnic minority group Majority from Mexico Spanish language defines Latinos from other groups, growth of Spanish in US has caused backlash in some areas Large cultural, class differences between country of origin Diversity has inhibited unity, causes political underrepresentation Many Latinos experience economic disadvantages Cubans typically better off, Puerto Ricans lowest on indicators of well being
Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States African Americans Faced long history of racism (slavery to segregation to modern discrimination) Civil Rights Movement improved conditions of African Americans End of forced segregation, legal discrimination Recently gains in income, education, politics William Julius Wilson- social class has replaced race as determinant of quality of life for African Americans Improvement through getting better paying jobs Some sociologists claim this analysis overlooks discrimination that continues (subtle racism)
Asian Americans History of discrimination- Anti Chinese immigration laws, forced internment of Japanese Americans during WWII Following war discrimination diminished Currently highest median income of all ethnic groups Score high on indicators of well being Chinese, Japanese low rates of poverty, Vietnamese high rates of poverty Three factors of success- a) family life b) education c) assimilation into mainstream culture
Racial and Ethnic Relations in the United States Native Americans Image distorted by media Not a single cultural entity Disease, warfare caused huge loss of population Anglo-American cruelty, forced relocation Worst off of all ethnic minority groups High rates of poverty, alcoholism, lower life expectancy Pan-Indiamisim movement works for better life
Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S. In 1980 white Americans made up 80% of the population. In 2000, white Americans made up 70% of the population. By 2056, the roots of the average U.S. resident will be in Africa, Asia, Hispanic countries, the Pacific Islands, or Arabia—not white Europe.
Looking toward the Future 3 major issues face society today Immigration- America land of immigrants recently debate has intensified Affirmative Action- used to close economic, employment gap and to remedy past wrongs Some argue it stigmatizes people, rewards people less qualified Multicultural Society- ultimate goal, look beyond biological differences, allow all to participate with full social and political power