Presentation on theme: "Štefan Trenkler, MD PhD KAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP Košice Košice 2011"— Presentation transcript:
1Štefan Trenkler, MD PhD KAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP Košice Košice 2011 First aid IIIŠtefan Trenkler, MD PhDKAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP KošiceKošice 2011KLINIKA ANESTÉZIOLÓGIE A INTENZÍVNEJ MEDICÍNYLF UPJŠ A FNLP KOŠICE
4DefinitionSyndrom - decreased effective blood volume - decreased capilary perfusion (flow) - cells and organs dysfunctionShock is a life-threatening condition due to lack of sufficient blood or oxygen flow to the tissuesFactors: blood volume - heart - vessels
9Shock – what happens Low blood pressure Low tissue perfusion Organ damage
10Shock - signsThe skin is cool and clammy. It may appear pale or gray. Mucous membranes are dry.The pulse is weak and rapid.Breathing may be slow and shallow, or hyperventilation (rapid or deep breathing) may occur. Blood pressure is below normal.The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare. Sometimes the pupils are dilated.The person may be conscious or unconscious. If conscious, the person may feel faint or be very weak or confused. Shock sometimes causes a person to become overly excited and anxious.
12If you suspect shock, even if the person seems normal after an injury Dial 112/155Have the person lie down on his or her back with feet higher than the head. If raising the legs will cause pain or further injury, keep him or her flat. Keep the person still.Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin CPR.Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen belt(s) and tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Even if the person complains of thirst, give nothing by mouth.Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking if the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth.Seek treatment for injuries, such as bleeding or broken bones.
13First aidMaintain verbal contact - calm the affected person, ensure quietPrevent loss of bloodReduce pain by treatment, but don’t give the affected person pain pillsKeep the affected person warm - danger of growing coldDon’t give drinks to the affected person - only moisten lips and wipe the faceLay the affected person in anti-shock or auto-transfusion position (in case of massive bleeding)Call for medical aid as quickly as possible (112/155)
17Fainting (syncope)Is a sudden loss of consciousness from a lack of blood flow to the brain.Victims usually wake up quickly after collapsing.Management is simple, usually requiring little more than letting the victim recover while lying flat.More important than immediate management is treating the cause of the fainting.
19Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate, causing you to lose consciousness. This loss of consciousness is usually brief.Fainting can have no medical significance, or the cause can be a serious disorder.Therefore, treat loss of consciousness as a medical emergency until the signs and symptoms are relieved and the cause is known.
20If you feel faint: Lie down or sit down. If you sit down, place your head between your knees.
21First aidPosition the person on his or her back. Elevate the legs above heart level — about 30 centimeters, if possible.Check the person's airway to be sure it's clear. Watch for vomiting.Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin CPR. Call 112/155 Continue CPR until help arrives or the person responds and begins to breathe.Help restore blood flow. If the person is breathing, restore blood flow to the brain by raising the person's legs above the level of the head. Loosen belts, collars or other constrictive clothing. The person should revive quickly. If the person doesn't regain consciousness within one minute, dial 112/155.If the person was injured in a fall associated with a faint, treat any bumps, bruises or cuts appropriately. Control bleeding with direct pressure.
22First aid - positions Unconciousness: recovery position Shock: horizonal, head down/legs upBreathing problems: seated positionBackbone trauma: horizontal
28A seizure results from a sudden rush of abnormal electrical signals in the brain. Symptoms may range from a minor daze to uncontrollable muscle spasms (convulsion).In some cases, the victim may even lose consciousness. A seizure can be caused by a high fever, head injury, drug reaction, or condition such as epilepsy.
301. Protect the HeadHelp the victim to the floor if he or she begins losing muscle control. Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking.Protect the victim's head from injury by placing something soft, such as folded clothes, beneath it, and by moving objects away from the victim.DON'T cause injury by restraining the person or by placing anything in his or her mouth.
312. Preserve Dignity Clear away bystanders. Reassure the victim, who may be confused, drowsy, or hostile when coming out of the seizure.Cover the person or provide dry clothes if muscle spasms have caused a loss of bladder control.
323. Check for InjuryMake sure the victim's mental state has returned to normal. One way to do this is to ask the person his or her name, the year, and your location.Look for any injury to the mouth and head.Stay with the patients, regulary check
334. Call 112/255 If the seizure lasts longer than 3 minutes If a second seizure occursIf the victim does not regain consciousnessIf the victim is pregnantIf the victim has no history of seizures
38The level of sugar (glucose) in our blood is kept within a fairly strict range by a hormone (insulin) produced in the pancreas. When the pancreas fails to produce the correct amount of insulin, this condition is called diabetes.People who live with diabetes are usually expert in managing their blood sugar levels, to the range agreed with them by their doctor of nurse. Occasionally their blood has either too much or too little sugar in it, causing problems.
40The level of sugar (glucose) in our blood is kept within a fairly strict range by a hormone (insulin) produced in the pancreas. When the pancreas fails to produce the correct amount of insulin, this condition is called diabetes.People who live with diabetes are usually expert in managing their blood sugar levels, to the range agreed with them by their doctor of nurse. Occasionally their blood has either too much or too little sugar in it, causing problems.
43HypoglycaemiaWhen a casualty's blood level falls below a certain level, hypoglycaemia will develop. There are a number of ways that someone's blood sugar levels can drop:-- Missing a meal or snack- Over-exterting themselves, without taking account of their extra sugar needs- Accidental overdose of their medication (designed to lower their blood sugar levels to an acceptable level).
44Recognising low blood sugar The casualty will probably know if they have diabetes.Other recognition featuresBehaviour: confused, violent. possibly weak, faint, hungry,Breathing: shallowPulse: strong, bounding, palpitations,Level of response: deterioratingMuscles may have a slight shaking (tremors).Skin: cool, clammy, pale, sweaty.The casualty may have a form of recognition, eg. carry a card, wear a bracelet, wear a necklace, carry diabetes medication, etc.
45Care if unconscious Check your own safety. Open the casualty's airway and check if they are breathing.If their airway is clear and they are breathingAn unconscious casualty must be placed in the recovery position.Dial 112/155 for an ambulanceEvery 10 minutes their breating, pulse and level fo response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.
47Care if conscious Check your own safety. Give your casualty something to raise their blood sugar quickly (eg. sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, etc)If they improve QUICKLY, offer more food and drinkAdvise them also to discuss the episode with their doctorIf they DON'T improve quicklyDial 112/155 for an ambulanceEvery 10 minutes their breating, pulse and level of response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.
48HyperglycaemiaThis is relatively uncommon in the field of first aid. If you are unsure whether the casualty, who says they have diabetes, is suffering from low or high blood sugar, the chances are it is low, so think carefully before assuming their blood sugar is high!When a casualty's blood level gets above a certain level, hyperglycaemia will develop. There are a number of ways that someone with diabetes can have increased blood sugar levels:- Inappropriate types & quantities of food and drink- Under-exterting themselves, without taking account of their reduced sugar needs- Accidental under-dosing of their medication.
49Recognising high blood sugar The casualty may not know if they have diabetes, as the condition often presents as high blood sugar.Other recognition featuresBreathing: laboured and deep breaths. May have a faint smell of acetone (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish remover).Pulse: fast.Level of response: may be deterioratingSkin: dry.Increased thirst, which leads to drinking more, which leads to passing water more frequently and in greater amounts.The casualty may have a form of recognition, eg carry a card, wear a bracelet, wear a necklace, carry diabetes medication, etc. REMEMBER, however, they can always be carrying these for somebody else OR they may be un-diagnosed!
50Care if conscious Check your own safety. DO NOT give the casualty sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, etcIf they are well enough discuss the episode with their doctorIf they are not well enough to discuss the episode with their doctorDial 112/155 for an ambulanceEvery 10 minutes their breathing, pulse and level of response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.
53Consequences Typ of the poison Dosis Entry route Organism (age, diseases)Toxin effects/complications
54General principles Stop the poison Remove the poison Treat signs, symptomsGive antidoteProtect yourself
55General measures Calm and reassure the patient Look for signs and symptomsNever induce vomitingNothing per osCarbosorb (charcoal) if counsciousTreat the shockCall 112/155; check the patient
56Call 112/155 or seek immediate medical help You see an open container of pills or chemicals or a damaged plant.The room or the victim's breath smells of fumes.The victim has burns in or near the mouth.The victim has shallow puncture wounds that enter the body at an angle, suggesting a venomous snake bite (usually on the lower arm or leg).
57Follow Instructions Care for the victim as instructed by dispatcher Keep the victim as calm as possible.Treat for shock and perform rescue breathing or CPR, if needed.If the victim needs medical help, bring the container or the poison with the victim to the hospital.
58InformationsThe label on the medication bottle or chemical container or the name or description of the plantThe amount swallowedThe length of time since the poisoningThe victim's age, weight, and symptoms
59Poisonous Bites Reduce Circulation Keep the victim still with the injury positioned below his or her heart level. This slows the spread of poison throughout the body.DON'T use a tourniquet.DON'T apply ice.DON'T cut the bite.DON'T try to suck venom out with your mouth.
60CO – carbon monoxideThe erythrocytes binds to carbon monoxide (CO) about 200 times stronger than it binds to oxygen. That means a victim of carbon monoxide poisoning has less oxygen getting to important organs like the heart and brain.The only treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning is to replace the carbon monoxide in the victim's blood with oxygen.
61Coloring of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Unlike other conditions that decrease oxygen in the blood, victims of carbon monoxide poisoning are almost never pale or blue (cyanotic).Although it doesn't happen every time, skin coloring in victims of severe carbon monoxide poisoning will often be bright pink or flushed red.
62Carbon monoxide can leak from any of the following items Gas stovesGas water heatersGas clothes dryersFireplacesWood stovesGas or charcoal barbecuesGas or oil space heaters
63Signs and symptomsVery similar to those of other conditions affecting the central nervous system.- Headache- Confusion- Shortness of breath- Weakness- Fatigue- Dizziness- Unstable gait (stumbling around)- Nausea & vomiting- Unconsciousness
64Response to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning If carbon monoxide poisoning is suspected, follow these steps:Remove the victim from the area immediately. Breathing fresh air will stop the poisoning from getting worse.Call 112/255. Treating CO poisoning requires professional assistance and oxygen delivery equipment.Follow the basics of first aid until help arrives.Find the source of the carbon monoxide and fix it.
66AcidsHydrofluoric acid is corrosive and can cause severe burns to skin and eyes.Contact with skin may not cause pain immediatelyAppearance of symptoms can be delayed for up to 24 hoursHydrofluoric acid is highly irritant to respiratory system and very toxic if swallowed
67Skin exposure Flood with water for 5 to 10 minutes Remove all contaminated clothing whilst flushing with running water
68Eye exposureImmediately flush eye with copious cool running water for at least 20 minutes and continueduring transit to hospital
69Inhalation exposureRemove casualty away from contamination to clean air.
70Alcohol Changes in a person's level of consciousness. Risk of vomiting and aspirationDo not leave aloneRecovery position