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First aid III Štefan Trenkler, MD PhD KAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP Košice Košice 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "First aid III Štefan Trenkler, MD PhD KAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP Košice Košice 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 First aid III Štefan Trenkler, MD PhD KAIM UPJŠ LF a UNLP Košice Košice 2011

2 Outlook Shock Colapse Seizures Diabetes emergencies Acute intoxications

3 Shock

4 Definition Syndrom - decreased effective blood volume - decreased capilary perfusion (flow) - cells and organs dysfunction Shock is a life-threatening condition due to lack of sufficient blood or oxygen flow to the tissues Factors: blood volume - heart - vessels

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6 1. Hypovolemic shock a) Loss of fluids from the body - bleeding, vomiting, diarhoea b) Internal losses - gut inflammation, gut obstruction

7 2. Cardiogenic shock heart attack arrhytmia other - pneumothorax - heart tamponade - lung embolism

8 3. Anaphylactic shock - drugs, foreign proteins, insects

9 Shock – what happens Low blood pressure Low tissue perfusion Organ damage

10 Shock - signs The skin is cool and clammy. It may appear pale or gray. Mucous membranes are dry. The pulse is weak and rapid. Breathing may be slow and shallow, or hyperventilation (rapid or deep breathing) may occur. Blood pressure is below normal. The eyes lack luster and may seem to stare. Sometimes the pupils are dilated. The person may be conscious or unconscious. If conscious, the person may feel faint or be very weak or confused. Shock sometimes causes a person to become overly excited and anxious.

11 Shock

12 If you suspect shock, even if the person seems normal after an injury Dial 112/155 Have the person lie down on his or her back with feet higher than the head. If raising the legs will cause pain or further injury, keep him or her flat. Keep the person still. Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin CPR. Keep the person warm and comfortable. Loosen belt(s) and tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Even if the person complains of thirst, give nothing by mouth. Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking if the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth. Seek treatment for injuries, such as bleeding or broken bones.

13 First aid Maintain verbal contact - calm the affected person, ensure quiet Prevent loss of blood Reduce pain by treatment, but don’t give the affected person pain pills Keep the affected person warm - danger of growing cold Don’t give drinks to the affected person - only moisten lips and wipe the face Lay the affected person in anti-shock or auto-transfusion position (in case of massive bleeding) Call for medical aid as quickly as possible (112/155)

14 Shock - position

15 Trendelenburg position

16 Fainting, syncope

17 Fainting (syncope) Is a sudden loss of consciousness from a lack of blood flow to the brain. Victims usually wake up quickly after collapsing. Management is simple, usually requiring little more than letting the victim recover while lying flat. More important than immediate management is treating the cause of the fainting.

18 Causes Dehydratation Emotions Health problems Orthostatic hypotension

19 Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate, causing you to lose consciousness. This loss of consciousness is usually brief. Fainting can have no medical significance, or the cause can be a serious disorder. Therefore, treat loss of consciousness as a medical emergency until the signs and symptoms are relieved and the cause is known.

20 If you feel faint: Lie down or sit down. If you sit down, place your head between your knees.

21 First aid Position the person on his or her back. Elevate the legs above heart level — about 30 centimeters, if possible. Check the person's airway to be sure it's clear. Watch for vomiting. Check for signs of circulation (breathing, coughing or movement). If absent, begin CPR. Call 112/155 Continue CPR until help arrives or the person responds and begins to breathe. Help restore blood flow. If the person is breathing, restore blood flow to the brain by raising the person's legs above the level of the head. Loosen belts, collars or other constrictive clothing. The person should revive quickly. If the person doesn't regain consciousness within one minute, dial 112/155. If the person was injured in a fall associated with a faint, treat any bumps, bruises or cuts appropriately. Control bleeding with direct pressure.

22 First aid - positions Unconciousness: recovery position Shock: horizonal, head down/legs up Breathing problems: seated position Backbone trauma : horizontal

23 Recovery

24 Trendelenburg

25 Dyspnoe

26 Backbone trauma

27 Seizures

28 A seizure results from a sudden rush of abnormal electrical signals in the brain. Symptoms may range from a minor daze to uncontrollable muscle spasms (convulsion). In some cases, the victim may even lose consciousness. A seizure can be caused by a high fever, head injury, drug reaction, or condition such as epilepsy.

29 Causes Epilepsy Brain tumor Brain trauma Intoxications

30 1. Protect the Head Help the victim to the floor if he or she begins losing muscle control. Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking. Protect the victim's head from injury by placing something soft, such as folded clothes, beneath it, and by moving objects away from the victim. DON'T cause injury by restraining the person or by placing anything in his or her mouth.

31 2. Preserve Dignity Clear away bystanders. Reassure the victim, who may be confused, drowsy, or hostile when coming out of the seizure. Cover the person or provide dry clothes if muscle spasms have caused a loss of bladder control.

32 3. Check for Injury Make sure the victim's mental state has returned to normal. One way to do this is to ask the person his or her name, the year, and your location. Look for any injury to the mouth and head. Stay with the patients, regulary check

33 4. Call 112/255 If the seizure lasts longer than 3 minutes If a second seizure occurs If the victim does not regain consciousness If the victim is pregnant If the victim has no history of seizures

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37 Diabetes mellitus

38 The level of sugar (glucose) in our blood is kept within a fairly strict range by a hormone (insulin) produced in the pancreas. When the pancreas fails to produce the correct amount of insulin, this condition is called diabetes. People who live with diabetes are usually expert in managing their blood sugar levels, to the range agreed with them by their doctor of nurse. Occasionally their blood has either too much or too little sugar in it, causing problems.

39 Pancreas and insulin

40 The level of sugar (glucose) in our blood is kept within a fairly strict range by a hormone (insulin) produced in the pancreas. When the pancreas fails to produce the correct amount of insulin, this condition is called diabetes. People who live with diabetes are usually expert in managing their blood sugar levels, to the range agreed with them by their doctor of nurse. Occasionally their blood has either too much or too little sugar in it, causing problems.

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43 Hypoglycaemia When a casualty's blood level falls below a certain level, hypoglycaemia will develop. There are a number of ways that someone's blood sugar levels can drop:- - Missing a meal or snack - Over-exterting themselves, without taking account of their extra sugar needs - Accidental overdose of their medication (designed to lower their blood sugar levels to an acceptable level).

44 Recognising low blood sugar The casualty will probably know if they have diabetes. Other recognition features Behaviour: confused, violent. possibly weak, faint, hungry, Breathing: shallow Pulse: strong, bounding, palpitations, Level of response: deteriorating Muscles may have a slight shaking (tremors). Skin: cool, clammy, pale, sweaty. The casualty may have a form of recognition, eg. carry a card, wear a bracelet, wear a necklace, carry diabetes medication, etc.

45 Care if unconscious Check your own safety. Open the casualty's airway and check if they are breathing. If their airway is clear and they are breathing An unconscious casualty must be placed in the recovery position. Dial 112/155 for an ambulance Every 10 minutes their breating, pulse and level fo response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.

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47 Care if conscious Check your own safety. Give your casualty something to raise their blood sugar quickly (eg. sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, etc) If they improve QUICKLY, offer more food and drink Advise them also to discuss the episode with their doctor If they DON'T improve quickly Dial 112/155 for an ambulance Every 10 minutes their breating, pulse and level of response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.

48 Hyperglycaemia This is relatively uncommon in the field of first aid. If you are unsure whether the casualty, who says they have diabetes, is suffering from low or high blood sugar, the chances are it is low, so think carefully before assuming their blood sugar is high! When a casualty's blood level gets above a certain level, hyperglycaemia will develop. There are a number of ways that someone with diabetes can have increased blood sugar levels: - Inappropriate types & quantities of food and drink - Under-exterting themselves, without taking account of their reduced sugar needs - Accidental under-dosing of their medication.

49 Recognising high blood sugar The casualty may not know if they have diabetes, as the condition often presents as high blood sugar. Other recognition features Breathing: laboured and deep breaths. May have a faint smell of acetone (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish remover).Breathing: Pulse: fast.Pulse Level of response: may be deterioratingLevel of response Skin: dry. Increased thirst, which leads to drinking more, which leads to passing water more frequently and in greater amounts. The casualty may have a form of recognition, eg carry a card, wear a bracelet, wear a necklace, carry diabetes medication, etc. REMEMBER, however, they can always be carrying these for somebody else OR they may be un-diagnosed!

50 Care if conscious Check your own safety. DO NOT give the casualty sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, etc If they are well enough discuss the episode with their doctor If they are not well enough to discuss the episode with their doctor Dial 112/155 for an ambulance Every 10 minutes their breathing, pulse and level of response must be measured, recorded. Pass these onto the ambulance crew.breathingpulselevel of response

51 Poisoning - intoxications

52 Entry Mouth Skin Lungs I.V.

53 Consequences Typ of the poison Dosis Entry route Organism (age, diseases) Toxin effects/complications

54 General principles Stop the poison Remove the poison Treat signs, symptoms Give antidote Protect yourself

55 General measures Calm and reassure the patient Look for signs and symptoms Never induce vomiting Nothing per os Carbosorb (charcoal) if counscious Treat the shock Call 112/155; check the patient

56 Call 112/155 or seek immediate medical help You see an open container of pills or chemicals or a damaged plant. The room or the victim's breath smells of fumes. The victim has burns in or near the mouth. The victim has shallow puncture wounds that enter the body at an angle, suggesting a venomous snake bite (usually on the lower arm or leg).

57 Follow Instructions Care for the victim as instructed by dispatcher Keep the victim as calm as possible. Treat for shock and perform rescue breathing or CPR, if needed. If the victim needs medical help, bring the container or the poison with the victim to the hospital.

58 Informations The label on the medication bottle or chemical container or the name or description of the plant The amount swallowed The length of time since the poisoning The victim's age, weight, and symptoms

59 Poisonous Bites Reduce Circulation Keep the victim still with the injury positioned below his or her heart level. This slows the spread of poison throughout the body. DON'T use a tourniquet. DON'T apply ice. DON'T cut the bite. DON'T try to suck venom out with your mouth.

60 CO – carbon monoxide The erythrocytes binds to carbon monoxide (CO) about 200 times stronger than it binds to oxygen. That means a victim of carbon monoxide poisoning has less oxygen getting to important organs like the heart and brain. The only treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning is to replace the carbon monoxide in the victim's blood with oxygen.

61 Coloring of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Unlike other conditions that decrease oxygen in the blood, victims of carbon monoxide poisoning are almost never pale or blue (cyanotic). Although it doesn't happen every time, skin coloring in victims of severe carbon monoxide poisoning will often be bright pink or flushed red.

62 Carbon monoxide can leak from any of the following items Gas stoves Gas water heaters Gas clothes dryers Fireplaces Wood stoves Gas or charcoal barbecues Gas or oil space heaters

63 Signs and symptoms Very similar to those of other conditions affecting the central nervous system. - Headache - Confusion - Shortness of breath - Weakness - Fatigue - Dizziness - Unstable gait (stumbling around) - Nausea & vomiting - Unconsciousness

64 Response to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning If carbon monoxide poisoning is suspected, follow these steps: Remove the victim from the area immediately. Breathing fresh air will stop the poisoning from getting worse. Call 112/255. Treating CO poisoning requires professional assistance and oxygen delivery equipment. Follow the basics of first aid until help arrives.basics of first aid Find the source of the carbon monoxide and fix it.

65 Mushrooms hours latency Amanita phaloides (death cup): > 12 hours Bring the rests

66 Acids Hydrofluoric acid is corrosive and can cause severe burns to skin and eyes. Contact with skin may not cause pain immediately Appearance of symptoms can be delayed for up to 24 hours Hydrofluoric acid is highly irritant to respiratory system and very toxic if swallowed

67 Skin exposure Flood with water for 5 to 10 minutes Remove all contaminated clothing whilst flushing with running water

68 Eye exposure Immediately flush eye with copious cool running water for at least 20 minutes and continue during transit to hospital

69 Inhalation exposure Remove casualty away from contamination to clean air.

70 Alcohol Changes in a person's level of consciousness. Risk of vomiting and aspiration Do not leave alone Recovery position

71 Thank you


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