Sending letters that she read and responded to as she would for any fan Hired a private investigator to track her routines and determine where she lived In a letter to his sister he wrote, “ I have an obsession which is unattainable and I have to eliminate what I can’t have” Rebecca was shot to death by R. Bardo
Psychiatrist has the duty to report threats to self or third party Confidentiality not applicable Board of Education lawyer was required by law to contact Mrs. Pawlowski directly and warn her of the verbal and written threats to kill her and others (serving as vice principal in Georgia in 2000).
Pattern of following a victim or harassment of same Threat (s) Fearful victim EVIDENCE NECESSARY Includes disturbing letters, photos, texts, voice mail DO NOT DISCARD
Research based conclusions Results of the N=74 stalkers interviewed and studied Erotomanic (delusional) 7 Love obsession 32 Love gone sour 35 A delusional stalker believes someone is in love with him. Movie star? Singer?
American Journal of Psychiatry 1999 Classified and analyzed types of stalkers Paul Mullen researches, studies and treats stalker offenders in Australia and the world.
Pursue an ex intimate Want reconciliation and revenge (toxic blend of motivations) Criminal assault history Personality disorders (between psychotic and neurotic; normal are neurotic, psychotics have no sense of reality) Difficult to get along with REJECTED
OJ Simpson quote ‘lets say I committed this crime…’ Penny Chang Stalked with violent threats via email and killed
Intimacy Seekers Motivation is to be with ‘true love’ Desire relationship of love Reinterpret or oblivious to victim’s response Many have delusional disorder;mentally ill, yes! ‘a fixed false belief that can’t be shaken’ Erotomanic delusions
Intimacy Seekers Robert Hoskins stalked Madonna Broke into her property Attacked body guards Sent emails and letters Madonna testified in trial (Hoskins received the attention he sought by having her testify) THE MATERIAL GUY in prison
Incompetent Motivation is to get sex Acknowledge victim’s disinterest but.. Have crude motivation to desire Tend to have low IQ Socially inept; may be ‘cave man’ Pleads Friendly, trusting women often targets of this stalker type
Female to male stalkers are about one in four 1:4 Women stalkers are rare but tend to be of INCOMPETENT type
RESENTFUL Desire retribution Tell of persecution Paranoid type diagnosis Intend to frighten and /or distress victim New Hampshire judge received picture of clock showing 5:20 with a note ‘this is when you’ll die’
Predatory Serial sexual predator Prepared for sexual attack Stalk to study and observe Well-planned; have equipment for attack and submission or torture PARAPHILICS No warning or communications; are they really stalkers?
Threats Assaults Rejected 71% 54% Intimacy Seekers50 23 Incompetent32 27 Resentful 87 25 Predatory 33 50 Domestic violence in rejected type Rejected often has warning signs Progression of rejection in divorce, custody battles, loss of love, may increase in intensity
Rejected: legal sanctions, mental health support; risk reduction Intimacy seekers: involuntary court order, impervious to legal sanctions, will do anything for love; victim must make legal Incompetent: interpersonal and communication skills; often drop victim 1 for victim 2
Resentful: difficult to engage in treatment, court order for anger treatment, intervention dilemma (are we making this worse?) Predatory: criminal justice containment and treatment for parafilia (sex offenders)
Usually incompetent or resentful Identify type, account for individual Ex intimates most lethal Multidisciplinary team w/law enforcement Tailor intervention Suggestion that ‘resentful’ type can include some terroristic threats /actions
POSSIBLY… Disorder of attachment Inability to ‘self- soothe’ Why more men than women, not known
Special Agent Ron Hazelwood, FBI Each book written comes highly recommended
After episodes with a stalker, a victim’s life is often shattered. Many have to relocate, leave employment, suffer emotional trauma, or worse, even if the stalker is managed or contained by law enforcement. Ω