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Forensic Psychiatry Stalking "Even if I did do this, it would have to have been because I loved her very much, right?" - OJ Simpson.

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Presentation on theme: "Forensic Psychiatry Stalking "Even if I did do this, it would have to have been because I loved her very much, right?" - OJ Simpson."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Forensic Psychiatry

3 Stalking "Even if I did do this, it would have to have been because I loved her very much, right?" - OJ Simpson

4 Do Now: Is stalking socially acceptable? Is stalking socially acceptable? Eight million American women -- or one in 12 – will be a victim of stalking at some point in their lives. -Kristin Ohlson

5 Well Is It? "The Lloyd Dobler Effect". Emily, like me, is an a crazy fan of John's, specifically of his Lloyd Dobler role in Say AnythingLloyd Dobler role pepe le pew Lloyd effect

6 What is Stalking ? a set of "behaviors that last more than two weeks and involves repeated and persistent attempts to impose on another person unwanted contacts and/or communications which induce fear or distress." a set of "behaviors that last more than two weeks and involves repeated and persistent attempts to impose on another person unwanted contacts and/or communications which induce fear or distress." - Paul Mullen, M.D. “He always told me he would make me sorry,” “I never dreamed he would do it by killing our child.”

7 Who is doing the Stalking ? ____% of the stalkers were male ____% of the stalkers were male ____% of the stalkers were ex partners of the victims ____% of the stalkers were ex partners of the victims ____% had some form of relationship with the victim ____% had some form of relationship with the victim Who is stalked the most?? Who is stalked the most?? ex-partners professional relationship, fellow employees, ex-partners professional relationship, fellow employees, customers casual acquaintances customers casual acquaintances the stalkers who assaulted were most likely to be ____? the stalkers who assaulted were most likely to be ____? -(Mullen, Pathe, Purcell, Stuart, 1999: 1244)

8 Who is doing the Stalking ? 79% of the stalkers were male 79% of the stalkers were male 30% of the stalkers were ex partners of the victims 30% of the stalkers were ex partners of the victims 86% had some form of relationship with the victim, 86% had some form of relationship with the victim, including ex-partners (36%), including ex-partners (36%), professional relationship (23%) professional relationship (23%) fellow employees or customers (11%) fellow employees or customers (11%) casual acquaintances (19%) casual acquaintances (19%) 36% (52) of the stalkers attacked their victims, 14 involved sexual assault 36% (52) of the stalkers attacked their victims, 14 involved sexual assault the stalkers who assaulted were most likely to be rejected ex partners. the stalkers who assaulted were most likely to be rejected ex partners. ’ (Mullen, Pathe, Purcell, Stuart, 1999: 1244) ’ (Mullen, Pathe, Purcell, Stuart, 1999: 1244)

9 According to a 1998 study by the Department of Justice. 8% of women will be stalked in their lifetime 8% of women will be stalked in their lifetime Women Women aged 18 to 35 (11%) aged 18 to 35 (11%) aged 36 to 55 (8 %) aged 36 to 55 (8 %) 56 or older (4%) 56 or older (4%) -Paul Mullen, M.D., at APA’s Paul Mullen, M.D., at APA’s % of men will be stalked in their lifetime Men ages of 18 and 35 (8%) aged 36 to 55 (4%) aged 56 and older (3%), Professor of forensic psychiatry at Monash University in Victoria, Australia.

10 Do Now: In what ways can stalkers communicate with their victims? In what ways can stalkers communicate with their victims? “I have to eliminate what I cannot obtain.” Bardo,in a letter to his sister Later he killed Rebecca Schaeffer

11 Do Now: Answers In what ways can stalkers communicate with their victims? telephone, , fax, letters, notes, gifts telephone, , fax, letters, notes, gifts Attempt to be physically close to the victim by approaching, following, surveilling, and loitering near that person Attempt to be physically close to the victim by approaching, following, surveilling, and loitering near that person

12 Do Now 11/12: What might concern you about this letter?

13 How might you describe the stalker’s profile? “He always told me he would make me sorry,” “I never dreamed he would do it by killing our child.”

14 How might you describe the stalker’s profile? Usually an isolated and shy person, May be unemployed Usually an isolated and shy person, May be unemployed Social Failure: one who lives alone, lacks any type of important intimate relationship Social Failure: one who lives alone, lacks any type of important intimate relationship Narcissistic personality disorder and very low self-esteem. Narcissistic personality disorder and very low self-esteem. The stalker feels that they're the most important person in the world." The stalker feels that they're the most important person in the world." Many people stalk someone they have only met briefly Many people stalk someone they have only met briefly Someone they don't really know, or barely know. Someone they don't really know, or barely know.

15 What are Mullen’s Five Categories of Stalkers TypesofStalkers

16 Mullen’s Five Categories of Stalkers TypesofStalkers RejectedSuitor Intimacy Seeker Seeker The Incompetent IncompetentSuitorTheResentfulStalker ThePredatoryStalker

17 1. The Rejected Suitor Known as the guy who “just can’t let go.” Known as the guy who “just can’t let go.” Former lover or spouse that refuse to believe the relationship is over Former lover or spouse that refuse to believe the relationship is over They have a narcissistic sense of entitlement and belief this is the only relationship they are going to have. They have a narcissistic sense of entitlement and belief this is the only relationship they are going to have. Fluctuate between overtures of reconciliation and revenge. Fluctuate between overtures of reconciliation and revenge. Most rejected stalkers in Mullen’s study had personality disorders. Most rejected stalkers in Mullen’s study had personality disorders.

18 The Rejected Suitor People - even the victims - feel sorry for them. People - even the victims - feel sorry for them. But studies show that the vast majority of these stalkers are not sympathetic, lonely people who are still hopelessly in love, But studies show that the vast majority of these stalkers are not sympathetic, lonely people who are still hopelessly in love, They are/were in fact emotionally abusive and controlling during the relationship. They are/were in fact emotionally abusive and controlling during the relationship. Many have criminal histories unrelated to stalking. Many have criminal histories unrelated to stalking.

19 Dealing with the Rejected Suitor The victim may unwittingly encourage the stalker by trying to "let him down easy," or agreeing to talk to him "just one more time." The victim may unwittingly encourage the stalker by trying to "let him down easy," or agreeing to talk to him "just one more time." Victims need to understand is that there is no reasoning with stalkers. Just the fact that stalking - an unreasonable activity - has already begun, illustrates this fact. Victims need to understand is that there is no reasoning with stalkers. Just the fact that stalking - an unreasonable activity - has already begun, illustrates this fact. When the victim says, "I don’t want a relationship now," the stalker hears, "She’ll want me again, tomorrow." When the victim says, "I don’t want a relationship now," the stalker hears, "She’ll want me again, tomorrow." When she says, "I just need some space," he hears, "If I just let her go out with her friends, she’ll come back." When she says, "I just need some space," he hears, "If I just let her go out with her friends, she’ll come back." "It’s just not working out," is heard as "we can make it work out." "It’s just not working out," is heard as "we can make it work out." In other words, the only thing to say to the stalker is "no." No explanations, no time limits, no room to maneuver. In other words, the only thing to say to the stalker is "no." No explanations, no time limits, no room to maneuver.

20 Dealing with the Rejected Suitor A victim should say "no" once and only once. And then, never say anything to him again. A victim should say "no" once and only once. And then, never say anything to him again. If a stalker can’t have his victim’s love, he’ll take her hatred or her fear. The worst thing in the world for him is to be ignored. If a stalker can’t have his victim’s love, he’ll take her hatred or her fear. The worst thing in the world for him is to be ignored. Think of little children: If they’re not getting the attention they want, they’ll act out and misbehave because even negative attention is better than none at all. Think of little children: If they’re not getting the attention they want, they’ll act out and misbehave because even negative attention is better than none at all. Former intimate partner stalkers have their entire sense of self-worth caught up in the fact that, "she loves me." Therefore, any evidence to the contrary is seen as merely an inconvenience to overcome. Since giving up his victim means giving up his self-worth, he is very unlikely to do so. Don’t help him hang on. Former intimate partner stalkers have their entire sense of self-worth caught up in the fact that, "she loves me." Therefore, any evidence to the contrary is seen as merely an inconvenience to overcome. Since giving up his victim means giving up his self-worth, he is very unlikely to do so. Don’t help him hang on.

21 2. The Intimacy Seeker The intimacy-seeking stalker intends to establish a relationship with his "true love" regardless of her wishes. The intimacy-seeking stalker intends to establish a relationship with his "true love" regardless of her wishes. They believe that their victim loves them and that they are having a relationship with the victim, even though they might never have met. They believe that their victim loves them and that they are having a relationship with the victim, even though they might never have met. The woman stalking David Letterman, the stalker who killed actress Rebecca Schaeffer and the man who stalked Madonna are all examples The woman stalking David Letterman, the stalker who killed actress Rebecca Schaeffer and the man who stalked Madonna are all examples Typically write letters to communicate Typically write letters to communicate

22 2. The Intimacy Seeker The typical profile is that of an unmarried and socially immature loner, who is unable to establish or sustain close relationships with others. The typical profile is that of an unmarried and socially immature loner, who is unable to establish or sustain close relationships with others. They rarely date and have had few, if any, sexual relationships. They rarely date and have had few, if any, sexual relationships. They often pick victims who are unattainable in some way; perhaps she is married, or has been the stalker’s therapist, clergyman, doctor or teacher. They often pick victims who are unattainable in some way; perhaps she is married, or has been the stalker’s therapist, clergyman, doctor or teacher. Those in the helping professions are particularly vulnerable to this stalker, because of the kindness shown by the soon-to-be victim. Those in the helping professions are particularly vulnerable to this stalker, because of the kindness shown by the soon-to-be victim. What these stalkers cannot attain in reality is achieved through fantasy and it is for this reason that the delusion seems to be so difficult to relinquish: Even an imaginary love is better than no love at all. What these stalkers cannot attain in reality is achieved through fantasy and it is for this reason that the delusion seems to be so difficult to relinquish: Even an imaginary love is better than no love at all.

23 Dealing with the Intimacy Seeker When the victim says "no," he rationalizes it away, believing that, "her husband made her get that restraining order, “she really loves me” When the victim says "no," he rationalizes it away, believing that, "her husband made her get that restraining order, “she really loves me” “Her agent told her it would be bad for her career if we dated, but she really loves me." “Her agent told her it would be bad for her career if we dated, but she really loves me." Therefore, as with every type of stalker, it is imperative that victims have no contact. Therefore, as with every type of stalker, it is imperative that victims have no contact.

24 3. The Incompetent Suitor This type is typically a man who had been rebuffed after asking a woman for a date. He’s often socially inept, and when rejected, begins to stalk with the hope that his persistent behavior will change the woman’s mind. He’s often socially inept, and when rejected, begins to stalk with the hope that his persistent behavior will change the woman’s mind. The incompetent suitors can be responsive to judicial sanctions but are also likely to relapse. The incompetent suitors can be responsive to judicial sanctions but are also likely to relapse.

25 4. The Resentful Stalker These offenders express anger in response to a perception that they have been humiliated or treated unfairly by the object of their obsession. These offenders express anger in response to a perception that they have been humiliated or treated unfairly by the object of their obsession. They thrive on having a sense of power and control over the victim, and are hard to treat because they often see themselves as the victim. They thrive on having a sense of power and control over the victim, and are hard to treat because they often see themselves as the victim. Many have paranoid or delusional disorders Many have paranoid or delusional disorders Often stalk colleagues or complete strangers instead of former partners Often stalk colleagues or complete strangers instead of former partners

26 4. The Resentful Stalker Wants to frighten and distress his victim. Wants to frighten and distress his victim. Stalks his victim to get revenge against someone who has upset him. Stalks his victim to get revenge against someone who has upset him. Views his victim as being similar to those who have oppressed and humiliated him in the past. Views his victim as being similar to those who have oppressed and humiliated him in the past. May view himself as a victim striking back against an oppressor. May view himself as a victim striking back against an oppressor.

27 5. The Predatory Stalker Predator plans their attack, rehearses it, has lots of sexual fantasies about it. Predator plans their attack, rehearses it, has lots of sexual fantasies about it. Derives pleasure from gathering information about the target and fantasizing about the assault. Derives pleasure from gathering information about the target and fantasizing about the assault. Doesn't necessarily know the victim. Doesn't necessarily know the victim. The victim may not know she is being stalked. The victim may not know she is being stalked. They often have prior convictions as sexual deviants. They often have prior convictions as sexual deviants.

28 Two Questions: 1. Why did we leave off the Predatory Stalkers? 2. Predict which stalker is the most to be concerned about causing harm? From Jack Jordan

29 Why did we leave off the Predatory Stalkers ? Threats (%) Assaults (%) Rejected Suitor 71%54% Intimacy Seeking 50%23% Incompetent Suitor 32%27% Resentful Stalker 87%25% Predatory Stalker 33%50%

30 Predict which is the most to be concerned about? The rejected and predatory stalkers are most likely to assault their victims. The rejected and predatory stalkers are most likely to assault their victims.

31 When to Be Concerned The red flags: You immediately start getting several phone calls or s right after meeting this person. You immediately start getting several phone calls or s right after meeting this person. The person is clingy, controlling, or upset if you want to spend time with friends and family. The person is clingy, controlling, or upset if you want to spend time with friends and family. Marlon Pagtakhan stalked Jerry Ryan

32 How to Take action: Tell everyone you know that this is going on -- your employer, friends, family. Tell everyone you know that this is going on -- your employer, friends, family. Gently but firmly tell the person you've decided to move on. Gently but firmly tell the person you've decided to move on. Don't get drawn into discussions of why. Just say, "This situation isn't right for me" or "I'm not ready.." -- whatever you need to say, but say it gently. Don't get drawn into discussions of why. Just say, "This situation isn't right for me" or "I'm not ready.." -- whatever you need to say, but say it gently.

33 What about the victims? Victims are often forced to alter their lives to avoid the stalker. Victims are often forced to alter their lives to avoid the stalker. Mullen’s study found: Mullen’s study found: 53% of his subjects quit or changed jobs 53% of his subjects quit or changed jobs 40% moved to a different home 40% moved to a different home 70% curtailed social activities. 70% curtailed social activities.

34 Professionals at Risk, What about the victims? In addition to the physical dangers, stalking takes a severe psychological toll on its victims. In addition to the physical dangers, stalking takes a severe psychological toll on its victims. 83% Subjects were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder 83% Subjects were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder 37% with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 37% with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Additional 18% had PTSD symptoms but did not meet formal diagnostic criteria. Additional 18% had PTSD symptoms but did not meet formal diagnostic criteria. 24% had ideas of suicide 24% had ideas of suicide 25% percent increased their alcohol consumption and/or cigarette smoking 25% percent increased their alcohol consumption and/or cigarette smoking

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