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National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group STALKING : A THREAT ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE.

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Presentation on theme: "National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group STALKING : A THREAT ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group STALKING : A THREAT ASSESSMENT PERSPECTIVE

2 THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF VIOLENT CRIME

3 Supervisory Special Agent Eugene A. Rugala National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group FBI Academy Quantico, Virginia /

4 TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED: The role of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime in the assessment of threats. Nature and type of threats The Behavioral Assessment Process in the assessment of various types of threats Overview of Stalking Stalker Typologies

5 Criminal Investigative Analysis Criminal Investigative Analysis Process of reviewing and assessing the facts of a criminal act, and interpreting offender behavior and interaction with the victim, as exhibited during the commission of the crime, or in the crime scene.

6 Behavior Reflects Personality The method and manner in which a crime is committed, relates directly to the personality of the offender.

7 TYPES OF CASES WHERE CIA MAY BE USEFUL HOMICIDES SEXUAL ASSAULTS CHILD ABDUCTIONS/KIDNAPPINGS ARSONS/BOMBINGS PRODUCT TAMPERING THREATS

8 CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS-PRODUCTS: CRIME ANALYSIS UNKNOWN OFFENDER PROFILE INVESTIGATIVE STRATEGIES INTERVIEW STRATEGIES THREAT ASSESSMENTS SEARCH WARRANT ASSISTANCE PROSECUTIVE STRATEGIES EXPERT TESTIMONY

9 Criminal Investigative Analysis Process Research Training - Education Experience in Similar Cases Case Specific Analysis + =

10 WHAT IS THREAT ASSESSMENT? IT IS AN ATTEMPT TO EXAMINE THE ELEMENTAL PARTS OF A VERBAL OR WRITTEN THREAT, IN ORDER TO ASSESS THE GENUINENESS AND OVERALL VIABILITY OF THE EXPRESSION OF AN INTENT TO DO HARM.

11 THREAT ASSESSMENT WITHIN THE NCAVC IN UNKNOWN OFFENDER CASES, THE ANALYSIS OF WRITTEN, TYPE-WRITTEN, TAPE-RECORDED, AND COMPUTER-GENERATED THREATS MADE AGAINST PERSONS, PLACES OR THINGS IN KNOWN OFFENDER CASES, THE ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR EXHIBITED BY HIM/HER TO ASSESS POTENTIAL FOR VIOLENCE

12 DEFINITION OF STALKING Repeated pattern of harassing behaviors Intention to frighten, intimidate, or terrorize a particular victim Men and women are the perpetrators

13 HARASSING BEHAVIORS CAN INCLUDE: Surveillance Lying in Wait Non-consensual Communication Telephone Harassment Vandalism Use of the Computer to Harass and/or Threaten an Individual

14 MOST STALKING LAWS REQUIRE: The perpetrator must make a credible threat of violence Against the victim; Others include threats against the victims Immediate family; Still others require only that a course of Conduct engaged by the alleged stalker constitute an implied Threat.

15 STALKING PREVALENCE LIFETIME VICTIMIZATION RATES The National Violence of Women Survey found the following: 8.1% of Women and 2.2% of Men have been stalked at least once in their lifetime based on 16,000 respondents. Based on U.S Census Bureau estimates, one out of every 12 Women and one out of every 45 Men, or 8.2 million and 2.0 Million respectively have been stalked sometime in their Lifetime.

16 MOST WOMEN ARE STALKED BY: 38% by Current or Former Husbands. 10% by Current or Former Cohabitating Partners. 14% by Current or Former Dates or Boyfriends. Overall, 59% were stalked by some type of Intimate Partner.

17 STALKING BEHAVIOR IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN 80% OF THE CASES INVOLVING INTIMATE PARTNERS, THE STALKING EITHER STARTED OR CONTINUED AFTER THE WOMEN LEFT THE RELATIONSHIP.

18 INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE In 1998, 1 Million Violent Crimes were Committed Against Persons by their Current or Former Spouses, Boyfriends, Girlfriends. About 85% of Victimizations by Intimate Partners were Against Women In 1998, About 1830 Murders were Attributable to Intimate Partners In 1998, Women were Nearly 3 Out of 4 Victims of the 1830 Homicides The Percentage of Female Murder Victims Killed by Intimate Partners has remained at 30% since 1976 (National Crime Victimization Survey May 2000)

19 BATTERER TYPOLOGIES POWER AND CONTROL BATTERERS MENTALLY ILL BATTERERS CRIMINAL - PSYCHOPATHIC BATTERERS (Walker, 1996)

20 POWER AND CONTROL Violence Mostly in Homes Motivated by Abnormal Power and Control Needs

21 MENTALLY ILL BATTERERS Abnormal Power and Control Severe Psychological Problems Depression Disordered Thinking Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder Paranoid Disorders

22 CRIMINAL – PSYCHOPATHIC BATTERERS Commit Assaults Within the Home Commits Other Non-Violent and Violent not Limited to the Home Often Diagnosed with Anti-Social Personality Disorder.

23 OFFENDER CHARACTERISTICS Jealous and Extremely Possessive Manipulative Blames Others Unable to take No for an answer Sense of Entitlement Unable to Cope with Rejection Dependent on the Victim for Sense of Self Narcissistic Views Himself as a Victim Mood Swings Deceptive Needs to be in Control

24 LATEST RESEARCH SUGGESTS: Violence Risk in Prior Sexual Intimates is High Homicide Rates Among Stalkers are Low In Domestic Cases, Stalkers Who Pose a Threat Will Often Make a Threat In Public Cases, Stalkers Who Pose a Threat will Usually Not Make a Threat ( Meloy 2002 )

25 LATEST RESEARCH SUGGESTS: Three Predictive Factors for Stalking Violence: Prior Criminal History Drug Abuse/Dependency Prior Sexual Intimacy Two Other Related Factors: No Mental Disorder Threats ( Meloy 2002 )

26 STALKER TYPOLOGIES SIMPLE OBSESSIONAL LOVE OBSESSIONAL EROTOMANIC FALSE VICTIMIZATION SYNDROME ( Zona, Palarea, and Lane )

27 SIMPLE OBSESSIONAL Most Common Typology Prior Relationship Perception of Mistreatment on part of Offender Personality Disorder Short Duration Volatile

28 LOVE OBSESSIONAL No Prior Relationship Usually Known Through Media Delusional Disorders Common Long Duration Offenders Mostly Male

29 EROTOMANIC Delusional Disorder Rare No Prior Relationship Long Duration Offenders Mostly Female

30 FALSE VICTIMIZATION SYNDROME Victim Becomes Suspect Fictitious Rare Attention and/or Attempt to Re- Establish Existing Relationship Primary Motives

31 STALKER TYPOLOGIES The typology can be viewed as a continuum based on the following: Dimension of the degree of relationship of the Stalker to the Victim. Stranger Vs. Non-Stranger Dimension of Mental Health Issues. Delusional Vs. Non-Delusional ( Douglas, Wright Et Al)

32 Lethality Indicators Symbolic Violence Physical Violence Location of Violence Strangulation Surveillance/Control Threats Children Fear Suicidal or Homicide Ideation Status of Relationship Orders of Protection Resisting Arrest Availability of Weapons Substance Abuse Stressors Mental Illness Desperation Decreased Focus Depersonalization

33 National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime Behavioral Analysis Unit Critical Incident Response Group SSA EUGENE A. RUGALA FBI Academy Quantico, Virginia


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