Presentation on theme: "What is stalking? Obsessive fixated pursuit Mullen (1999) describes stalking as ‘ a constellation of behaviour’s in which an individual inflicts upon."— Presentation transcript:
What is stalking? Obsessive fixated pursuit Mullen (1999) describes stalking as ‘ a constellation of behaviour’s in which an individual inflicts upon another repeated unwanted intrusions and communications’. Intrusions include making approaches, maintaining surveillance and gathering information. What Effect does stalking have on a victim? Research by the University of Leicester and Lorraine Sheridan found that serious financial and social losses were reported by many victims of stalking. Half changed their telephone numbers, half gave up social activities, half saw their performance at work affected, a third relocated. Others gave up friends and family, or changed identity. Hyper-vigilance Potential escalation to physical and sexual violence
Stalking: The facts 1 in 5 women and 1 in 10 men will be stalked at some point in their lives 40% of victims are stalked by an ex partner, in many cases the partner would have been emotionally or physically abusive during the relationship. Ex partner stalking cases carry the highest risk of escalation in to physical violence. On average a stalker will contact 21 people connected to the victim. This may include family, friends, employer, neighbours, even the victim’s regular gym or favourite café. It is becoming more common for stalkers to use technology like GPS on mobiles, tracker devices or spyware on phones to locate a victim On 25 th November stalking became a named offence in England and Wales for the first time.
Stalking Typology Mullen and Pathé Rejected Stalker - Rejected stalking arises in the context of the breakdown of a close relationship. Victims are usually former sexual intimates. Resentful Stalker - Resentful stalking arises when the stalker feels as though they have been mistreated or that they are the victim of some form of injustice or humiliation. Intimacy Seeker - Intimacy Seeking stalking arises out of a context of loneliness and a lack of a close confidante. Frequently Intimacy Seeking stalkers’ behaviour is fuelled by a severe mental illness involving delusional beliefs about the victim Incompetent Suitor - The Incompetent Suitor stalks in the context of loneliness or lust and targets strangers or acquaintances. Sometimes this insensitivity is associated with cognitive limitations or poor social skills consequent to autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability. Predatory Stalker - Predatory stalking arises in the context of deviant sexual practices and interests. Perpetrators are usually male and victims are usually female strangers in whom the stalker develops a sexual interest. For more detailed information about these typologies and for training workshops visit the Stalking Risk Profile website at https://www.stalkingriskprofile.com/
Stalking and Health Professionals Health care providers especially psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and general practitioners are particularly vulnerable to stalking. The patients and clients who harass them are most often categorized as intimacy seekers, incompetent suitors or resentful stalkers, through the termination of a therapeutic relationship may give rise to a rejected stalking pattern* Stalking is likely to be under reported by health professionals who may be inhibited by fear of being blamed or disbelieved. Violence is uncommon, there preferred methods being phone, letters and gifts, these victims nonetheless report distress, disruption and disillusionment with their chosen profession. It is not uncommon for a stalking victim to be pursued at work by the perpetrator who may make malicious allegations against them, persistently call, wait outside of work or follow the victim. *information taken from Surviving Stalking by Michele Pathé
The Protection from Harassment Act 1997 was amended under the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 to include offences of stalking for the first time on 25 th November 2012. There are now offences of both harassment and stalking in British law. Stalking is illegal and no one should have to endure it. The law in England and Wales provides a non exhaustive list of behaviours be viewed as stalking and this includes following a person, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use of a person by internet, loitering in any place (whether public or private), contacting or attempting to contact a person by any means. The perpetrator does not need to be threatening violence before stalking becomes a criminal offence. Under section 4A of the new stalking law, behaviour that causes serious distress is viewed equally as behaviour that involves a fear of violence. There are also civil remedies available such as seeking an injunctions under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997 or a Non Molestation Order under the Family Law Act 1996. What is the law regarding stalking?
1. Are you very frightened? 2. Is there any previous domestic abuse and/or harassment history? 3. Has (…..)ever destroyed or vandalised any of your property? 4. Does (…..) turn up at your workplace, home, etc. unannounced or uninvited more than 3 times a week? 5. Does (…..) follow you or loiter around your workplace or home? 6. Has (…..) made any threats of physical or sexual violence? 7. Has (…..) harassed any third parties since the harassment began? 8. Has (…..) acted violently towards anyone else within the stalking incident? 9. Has (…..) persuaded other people to help him/her (wittingly or unwittingly)? 10. Is (…..) known to be abusing drugs or alcohol? 11. Is (…..) known to have been violent in the past? This checklist should be used as an aide memoir rather than as a formal risk assessment. For more information about the checklist visit http://www.dashriskchecklist.co.uk/index.php?page=s-dash-for-use-in-stalking-cases- by-practitioners http://www.dashriskchecklist.co.uk/index.php?page=s-dash-for-use-in-stalking-cases- by-practitioners Stalking Risk Checklist
Anyone affected by stalking can call the National Stalking Helpline on 0808 802 0300 or email email@example.com@stalkinghelpline.org If you want any information about stalking or further statistics then please email firstname.lastname@example.org@stalkinghelpline.org