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Realizing the Hidden Fear. Overview  Background of Cyberstalking  Explanation of a Cyberstalker  Ex. Facebook  Federal Legislation  Prevention 

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Presentation on theme: "Realizing the Hidden Fear. Overview  Background of Cyberstalking  Explanation of a Cyberstalker  Ex. Facebook  Federal Legislation  Prevention "— Presentation transcript:

1 Realizing the Hidden Fear

2 Overview  Background of Cyberstalking  Explanation of a Cyberstalker  Ex. Facebook  Federal Legislation  Prevention  Ethical Analysis

3 Background of Cyberstalking  Cyberstalking - is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone.  Use this term interchangeably with online harassment or online abuse  Paul Bocij states that CyberAngels has one of the most useful definitions:  When identifying cyberstalking “in the field,” particularly when considering whether to report it to any kind of legal authority, the following features or combinations of features can be considered to characterize a true stalking situation: Malice, Premeditation, Repetition, Distress, Obsession, Vendetta, No Legitimate Purpose, Personally Directed, Disregarded Warnings to Stop, Harassment, and Threats

4 Background Continued  Victims of cyberstalking might object to the definition from CyberAngels.  Disregarded Warnings to Stop  You cannot claim that you are being a victim of cyberstalking if you have never said “Leave me alone” to the stalker. One standard defense used by stalkers in court is to claim that you were encouraging their attentions and that you never said “NO.”

5 Background Continued…  The majority of cyberstalkers are men and the majority of their victims are women but…..  Jane A. Hitchcock, president of WHOA says, “The most surprising thing we've seen is the rise in female cyberstalkers - this increased from 27% in 2000 to 35% in 2002 to 38% in 2003.”

6 Background Continued……  According to the Working to Halt Online Abuse (WHOA) from 2000 to 2006, out of the total cases, 2036, of cyberstalking….

7 Explanation of a Cyberstalker  P.E. Mullen describes six categories of cyberstalkers.  The four most important types are:  Rejected Stalker  Resentful Stalker  Predatory Stalker  Intimacy Stalker

8 Rejected Stalker  Most common, persistent, and intrusive  Obsessed with someone who is a former romantic partner or friend, and who has ended their relationship, or indicates that he or she intends to end the relationship.

9 Resentful Stalker  Looking for revenge against someone who has upset them--it could be someone known to the stalker or a complete stranger.  Their behaviors are meant to frighten and distress the victim

10 Predatory Stalker  Least common  Are a classic sexual predator whose plan is to physically or sexually attack the victim.  Their motivated purely by the desire for sexual gratification and power over their victim

11 Intimacy Stalker  They seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with their victim.  The victim and himself were “meant to be together.”  These types of people think that the victim owes them love and affection because of all the time and effort it took for the stalker to stalk them.

12 Example  Is Facebook really private?  News Feed and Mini-Feed  Tracks activities of a user’s friends  Highlights recent social activity  Invasion of privacy has made critics bring up the idea that Facebook facilitated online stalking.

13 Federal Legislation  “In 1990, California became the first state to enact a specific stalking law.” [1]  An Important Cyberstalking Federal Law:  18 U.S.C. 875(c). Under 18 U.S.C. 875(c), it is a federal crime to transmit any communication in interstate or foreign commerce containing a threat to injure the person of another.

14 Federal Legislation Cont.  Harry Valetk  Consider that Arizona’s stalking statute only prohibits credible threats of violence against the victim, whereas California and South Carolina prohibits threats against the victim’s immediate family. In Maine, a stalker’s course of conduct can constitute an implied threat. But what legal standard applies to a cyberstalker from Maine, terrorizing an Arizona resident, using a California ISP?

15 Prevention  Rule of Thumb:  NEVER GIVE ANY PERSONAL INFORMATION ACROSS THE INTERNET!  The more active a person is on the Internet, the more information becomes available to others to view about you.

16 Prevention Cont.  Don’t share personal information online.  Don’t fill out profiles or include personal information on websites.  Don’t use a gender specific or provocative screen name or address.  Don’t flirt or start an argument online unless you are prepared for the consequences.  Don’t share your password with anyone.  When cyberdating, set up a special address.  Use a good anti-virus program and update daily.

17 Ethical Analysis  Kantianism – decipher what is right or wrong  First Categorical Imperative – ex. Facebook  General Rule - I may use the new features of Facebook to stalk other people.  Universalize Rule – Everyone uses Facebook’s new features to stalk other people.  All society has done is create a website that helps people “stalk” others with the intention of causing them harm  Thus, unethical.

18 Ethical Analysis Cont.  Act Utilitarianism – based on the Principle of Utility.  Is it ethical for parents to be able to stalk their children through the use of electronic means?  Sounds ridiculous right?  Cell Phones  Motor Vehicles  GPS

19 Ethical Analysis Cont..  Internet software - track their teenager's Internet use remotely and can copy instant messages and online chats into e- mails that will be sent to parents.  Parents have the ability for the first time to keep constant tabs on their rebellious teens or their loyal teens.  Thus, ethical.


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