2Overview Background of Cyberstalking Explanation of a Cyberstalker Ex. FacebookFederal LegislationPreventionEthical Analysis
3Background of Cyberstalking Cyberstalking - is the use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone.Use this term interchangeably with online harassment or online abusePaul Bocij states that CyberAngels has one of the most useful definitions:When identifying cyberstalking “in the field,” particularly when considering whether to report it to any kind of legal authority, the following features or combinations of features can be considered to characterize a true stalking situation: Malice, Premeditation, Repetition, Distress, Obsession, Vendetta, No Legitimate Purpose, Personally Directed, Disregarded Warnings to Stop, Harassment, and Threats
4Background ContinuedVictims of cyberstalking might object to the definition from CyberAngels.Disregarded Warnings to StopYou cannot claim that you are being a victim of cyberstalking if you have never said “Leave me alone” to the stalker. One standard defense used by stalkers in court is to claim that you were encouraging their attentions and that you never said “NO.”
5Background Continued… The majority of cyberstalkers are men and the majority of their victims are women but…..Jane A. Hitchcock, president of WHOA says, “The most surprising thing we've seen is the rise in female cyberstalkers - this increased from 27% in 2000 to 35% in to 38% in 2003.”
6Background Continued…… According to the Working to Halt Online Abuse (WHOA) from to 2006, out of the total cases, 2036, of cyberstalking….
7Explanation of a Cyberstalker P.E. Mullen describes six categories of cyberstalkers.The four most important types are:Rejected StalkerResentful StalkerPredatory StalkerIntimacy Stalker
8Rejected Stalker Most common, persistent, and intrusive Obsessed with someone who is a former romantic partner or friend, and who has ended their relationship, or indicates that he or she intends to end the relationship.
9Resentful StalkerLooking for revenge against someone who has upset them--it could be someone known to the stalker or a complete stranger. Their behaviors are meant to frighten and distress the victim
10Predatory Stalker Least common Are a classic sexual predator whose plan is to physically or sexually attack the victim. Their motivated purely by the desire for sexual gratification and power over their victim
11Intimacy StalkerThey seeks to establish an intimate, loving relationship with their victim. The victim and himself were “meant to be together.”These types of people think that the victim owes them love and affection because of all the time and effort it took for the stalker to stalk them.
12ExampleIs Facebook really private?News Feed and Mini-FeedTracks activities of a user’s friendsHighlights recent social activityInvasion of privacy has made critics bring up the idea that Facebook facilitated online stalking.
13Federal Legislation“In 1990, California became the first state to enact a specific stalking law.” An Important Cyberstalking Federal Law:18 U.S.C. 875(c). Under 18 U.S.C. 875(c), it is a federal crime to transmit any communication in interstate or foreign commerce containing a threat to injure the person of another.
14Federal Legislation Cont. Harry ValetkConsider that Arizona’s stalking statute only prohibits credible threats of violence against the victim, whereas California and South Carolina prohibits threats against the victim’s immediate family. In Maine, a stalker’s course of conduct can constitute an implied threat. But what legal standard applies to a cyberstalker from Maine, terrorizing an Arizona resident, using a California ISP?
15Prevention Rule of Thumb: NEVER GIVE ANY PERSONAL INFORMATION ACROSS THE INTERNET!The more active a person is on the Internet, the more information becomes available to others to view about you.
16Prevention Cont. Don’t share personal information online. Don’t fill out profiles or include personal information on websites.Don’t use a gender specific or provocative screen name or address.Don’t flirt or start an argument online unless you are prepared for the consequences.Don’t share your password with anyone.When cyberdating, set up a special address.Use a good anti-virus program and update daily.
17Ethical Analysis Kantianism – decipher what is right or wrong First Categorical Imperative – ex. FacebookGeneral Rule - I may use the new features of Facebook to stalk other people.Universalize Rule – Everyone uses Facebook’s new features to stalk other people.All society has done is create a website that helps people “stalk” others with the intention of causing them harmThus, unethical.
18Ethical Analysis Cont.Act Utilitarianism – based on the Principle of Utility.Is it ethical for parents to be able to stalk their children through the use of electronic means?Sounds ridiculous right?Cell PhonesMotor VehiclesGPS
19Ethical Analysis Cont..Internet software - track their teenager's Internet use remotely and can copy instant messages and online chats into e- mails that will be sent to parents.Parents have the ability for the first time to keep constant tabs on their rebellious teens or their loyal teens.Thus, ethical.