8Secure Attachment Style Attachments marked by trust that the other person will continue to provide love and support
9Preoccupied Attachment Style An expectation about social relationships characterized by trust but combined with a feeling of being unworthy of others love and fear of abandonment
10Dismissing-avoidant Attachment Style An expectation about social relationships characterized by low trust and avoidance of intimacy, combined with high self-esteem and compulsive self-reliance
11Fearful-Avoidant Attachment Style An expectation about social relationships characterized by low trust and avoidance of intimacy, combined with a feeling of being unworthy of other’s love and a fear of rejection
13FriendshipAs we mature, we not only form emotional ties with our family members, we also form friendship outside the home.
14FriendshipRelationships based on friendship are primarily voluntary and mutually satisfying
15SELF-DISCLOSER SHAPES FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE Self-disclosureThe revealing of personal information about oneself to other people
16SELF-DISCLOSER SHAPES FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE Social Penetration TheoryA theory that describe the development of close relationship in terms of increasing self-disclosure
17GENDER DIFFERENCES EXIST IN HETEROSEXSUAL FRIENDSHIP IntimacyWomen’s friendships tend to be more intimate and involve more emotional sharing than men’s relationshipMen are more dominant and women are more agreeable and nurturing
18GENDER DIFFERENCES EXIST IN HETEROSEXSUAL FRIENDSHIP Self-DisclosureWomen generally self-disclosure more than men, especially in intimate relationshipPhysical TouchingMale friends less touching than did either female friends or mixed-sex friends
19Cross-Sex Heterosexual Friendships Gravitate to an “Intimacy Mean” Men tend to be more emotionally open and self-disclosing than they are with their male friends, while women disclose less and are not as intimate as they are with their women friends.
20Cross-Sex Heterosexual Friendships Gravitate to an “Intimacy Mean” Men and women are more likely to form and maintain friendships with the other sex when they have interests.The biggest problem in cross-sex friendship is sexual tension.
21Gender Differences Disappear in Same Sex Homosexual Friendship Same-sex relationships of gay men are as intimate as those of lesbians
23Romantic Relationships and Love The experience of romantic love differs from person to person, culture to culture, and over historical time.
24LOVESocial psychologists have recognized that a good definition of love must include the passionate, giddy feelings of romantic love as well as the deep, long term devotion of a long-married couple, lifelong friends or siblings
25LOVE Triangular Theory of Love The idea that different kinds of love consist of varying degrees of three components: intimacy, passion and commitment
26Triangular Theory of Love IntimacyRefers to feelings of being close to and bonded with a partnerPassionRefers to the “hot” parts of a relationship – the arousal you experience toward your partner, including sexual attraction
27Triangular Theory of Love CommitmentConsists of two decisions: the short-term one that you love your partner and the long-term one to maintain that love and stay with your partner
30MarriageA general definition of marriage is that it is a social contract between two individuals that unites their lives legally, economically and emotionally.
31MarriageBroderick (1984) stated that marriage has 9 characteristics
32Marriage Marriage is a social event Marriage is a relationship between two families and social networkMarriage is a legal agreement between individual and stateMarriage is an economy unitedMarriage is a common order for adult
33Marriage is a context for sex Marriage is a reproductive unitMarriage is for socializationMarriage is to build intimate relationship and sharing
34Types of Marriage Monogamy Serial Monogamy having only one husband or wife at a timeSerial Monogamypractice of having series of partners : the idea or practice of having only one sexual partner at a time and entering another relationship when one comes to an end
35Types of Marriage Polygamy Polygyny Polyandry having several wives or husbands at the same timePolygynyA man has two or more wives at the same timePolyandryA woman has two or more husband at the same time
37People used different strategies to cope with a troubles relationship In dealing with relationship dissatisfaction, we employ four distinct strategies:LoyaltyNeglectVoiceExit
38People used different strategies to cope with a troubles relationship LoyaltyPassively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve (hoping things to improve, pray, being supportive instead of fighting)NeglectPassively allow conditions to deteriorate (refusing to deal with problems, ignoring partner/spending less time together, putting no energy into the relationship)
39People used different strategies to cope with a troubles relationship VoiceActively & constructively attempting to improve condition (discuss problems, try to change, going to therapist)ExitActively harming or terminating the relationship (abusing partner, threaten to break up, actually leaving)
40ENDING INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP Researches have begun to examine what makes people end their relationship and the disengagement strategies they use
41The Process of Breaking Up According to Steve Duck, relationship dissolution occurs in four stagesIntrapersonal phaseThink a lot about she /he is dissatisfied with the relationshipDyadic PhaseThe individual discuss the break up with the partner
42The Process of Breaking Up Social PhaseThe breakup is announced to other peopleIntrapersonal PhaseThe individual recover from the breakup and forms an account of how and why it happened
43Figure 9.2: Steps in dissolving close relationship
44THE EXPERIENCE OF BREAKING UP Akert (1998) found that the role people played in the decision to end the relationship was the single most powerful predictor of their experiences.Breakess were most upset
45THE EXPERIENCE OF BREAKING UP Women experienced somewhat more negative emotions than menWhen the breakup is mutual, partners are more likely to remain friends after the relationship