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Patient Care In Medical Imaging RAD 233 Abdulrahman Al Sayyari, PhD, MBA, &MS.c.

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Presentation on theme: "Patient Care In Medical Imaging RAD 233 Abdulrahman Al Sayyari, PhD, MBA, &MS.c."— Presentation transcript:

1 Patient Care In Medical Imaging RAD 233 Abdulrahman Al Sayyari, PhD, MBA, &MS.c

2 Disease Transmission Lecture Five

3 Transmission of Diseases Disease causing pathogens spread from individual to individual or object to individual in a predicable manner Knowledge of the infectious cycle enables the technologist to use methods to prevent a pathogen from progressing in its life cycle An understanding of the methods by which pathogens are transmitted enable one to stop the spread of pathogens among the healthy and unhealthy population

4 Cycle of Infection pathogenReservoirExit PortalTransmission Entry portal Susceptible host The cycle of infection is sometimes referred to as the chain of infection, and describes how infections are contracted, and spread from one individual to another The cycle of infection begins with the infectious agent, and ends upon infecting the susceptible host

5 The Pathogen Breaking the cycle of infection and stopping the spread of infection at the infection agent (pathogen) point requires that contaminated objects are cleaned, disinfected, or sterilized So its a microorganisms spread preventing The infectious agent or pathogens in healthcare are frequently contracted through three routes: blood borne, airborne and contact

6 Routes of pathogen Transmission Routedescriptiondisease Blood borne Contact with infected blood. Needle stick or broken skin Hepatitis AIDS Airborne Pathogens disperse via droplet or in air during speech. e.g. cough or sneeze Tuberculosis (TB) Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) measles, chicken box Contact Touching patient himself, blood, body fluid, contaminated surface. MRSA VER CDC

7 The reservoir of infection refers to the environment in which a pathogen can grow and multiply The human body provides a very suitable environment for growth, providing nutrients, moisture and warmth Unclean surfaces, soil, animals, and improperly prepared or stored food also provide reservoirs for infection Carriers are persons who carry pathogens with no symptoms of disease Carriers often unknowingly and accidentally transmit infections to susceptible individuals Cycle of Infection cont’d

8 The Reservoir Breaking the cycle of infection and disease spread at the reservoir level requires the technologist control sources of body fluids and drainage This requires hand hygiene, proper disposal of contaminated tissues, dressings, linens, and needles Ensuring that exam tables and equipment be cleaned and dried after every patient

9 The susceptible host or recipient of infection often includes – Elderly and pediatric populations – Any patient with lowered immunity due to disease or medical treatment e.g. cancer patient receiving chemotherapy, or a patient whose immunity is lowered due to burns or trauma – Post transplant patients – malnutrition populations – Drugs users Cycle of Infection cont’d

10 Health care professionals can become susceptible hosts when their resistance is lowered due to fatigue, stress or poor eating habits Technologists can assist in halting the cycle of infection by ensuring they have: – adequate nutrition – adequate rest – maintain up to date vaccinations – Stay home when ill (sound good) The Host

11 In a human reservoir, portals refer to openings or mechanisms through which a pathogen can gain access to or leave a host Portals include openings that provide a channel for movement of secretions and excretions, through the nose, mouth, urinary or intestinal tract An open wound or injection site through which body fluids can escape may also provide access for entry and or exit of pathogens Cycle of Infection cont’d

12 Transmission of respiratory conditions may be halted by avoiding talking or sneezing directly over a wound or sterile field covering the nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing. The patient who is suffering from a respiratory infection should wear a mask The Portal

13 Transmission of body fluids is halted by wearing gloves and protective gowns and goggles if there is possibility of contact with blood, urine, feces and / or emesis. All wounds should be covered with a dressing or gauze The Portal

14 Disease may be transmitted via 6 major routes: Disease Transmission Direct Contact Droplet Contamination Vehicle Indirect Contact Airborne Contamination Vector

15 Occurs when a diseased person or their blood or body fluid is touched. Direct contact involves host- to-host transmission and occurs when a technologist touches a patient’s skin. Kissing or sexual contact are also means of direct contact Direct Contact

16 Direct contact can also occur through a needle stick injury potentially exposing the technologist to a patient’s blood. The wound should be allowed to bleed under cold water and washed with soap. If the mucous membrane of the eyes, nose or mouth is exposed to blood or body fluids the area should be rinsed liberally with water Direct Contact cont’d

17 Any exposure to blood or body fluids must be reported to management and an incident form completed. May require follow-up to ensure the safety of the healthcare worker Direct Contact cont’d

18 Occurs when a technologist makes contact with or touches an object previously contaminated by an infected person Contaminated objects are called fomites, and can include: – examination tables, – stretchers, – IV poles, – beds, – clothing and – wound dressings. Indirect contact can be minimized by ensuring equipment is thoroughly cleaned after use by each patient Indirect Contact

19 Occurs when mucous membranes come in contact with droplets of infected material associated with another’s sneeze or cough Droplets from a cough or sneeze can travel approximately 1-1.5m (Filippo Festini 2009), therefore one must be in close proximity to an infectious person during the sneeze or cough to be exposed to the droplets Patients must be provided with tissues and encouraged to cough or sneeze into a tissue covering their mouth. Hand hygiene should be performed after discarding the contaminated tissue Droplet Contamination

20 Describes the transmission of pathogens through dust particles or in the air Following a sneeze or cough, water droplets evaporate from the sneeze or cough, and microorganisms can remain suspended in air for long periods of time or until inhaled by a host Airborne Contamination

21 A vehicle is an agent that transports microorganisms Contaminated food, water, drugs or blood are common vehicles of disease Vehicle

22 Vectors refer to insects that harbour an infection in its body and transports the infection through its bite. Mosquitoes can cause malaria, and ticks cause Lyme disease. Vector

23 Preventing of Infection Given the increased awareness by patients and the medical community, and considering the prevalence of infectious diseases, the technologist must be aware of their practice and strive to prevent the spread of infections This challenge has become an increasingly important aspect of patient management.

24 Hand Hygiene

25 Thank You Questions?

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