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Effective Methods of Birth Control Contraception Effective Methods of Birth Control.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Methods of Birth Control Contraception Effective Methods of Birth Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Methods of Birth Control Contraception Effective Methods of Birth Control

2 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Abstinence Means choosing NOT to have sex It is the ONLY method that is 100% effective It is your right to be in control of your body and say NO What are some reasons for choosing abstinence?

3 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Male Condom A latex sheath that is rolled over an erect penis Acts to prevent direct genital contact and the exchange of genital fluids Should be used in combination with a spermicide (97-98% effective). Alone (85% with perfect use)

4 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Male Condom (cont’d) Advantages – They are your BEST protection against STI’s – Easily accessible and inexpensive – Do not need prescription – No hormonal changes – May help to avoid premature ejaculation Disadvantages – Reduced sensitivity – Must be stored & handled properly (expiry date) – Can slip off or break – Latex allergies – Should be used with a spermicide for better protection

5 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Female Condom A disposable polyurethane pouch, shaped like a round, upside-down baggie Placed in the vagina before sex (a new condom should be used for each act of intercourse) Prevents direct genital contact & exchange of body fluids 79-95% effective Never use with a male condom

6 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Female Condom Advantages – It's the only contraceptive controlled by girls that protects against pregnancy and STI’s – Can be inserted up to 8 hours before sex – Can be used for anal sex – Do not need prescription – No hormonal changes

7 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Female Condom (cont’d) Disadvantages – Some girls may have trouble inserting it correctly – May make a ‘rustling’ sound during sex (add lubricant on inside) – More expensive than male condoms ($3 each) – Need to plan ahead – Hangs outside the vagina (unappealing) – May slip out or break

8 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Spermicide Contain ingredients that disable sperm Available in various forms: sponges, creams, jellies, tablets, foams, film and suppositories Very effective when used with a barrier method (condom) 82% effective when used alone (perfect use)

9 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Spermicide (cont’d) Advantages – Easily accessible – In-expensive – Does not contain hormones – Do not need a prescription – Can be used by women who smoke or are breastfeeding – May provide some lubrication Disadvantages – No STI protection – Needs to be used in combination with another form of birth control – Can be messy – Need to plan ahead – Possible irritation/allergy – May have to interrupt sex to apply

10 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Emergency Contraception Emergency methods of birth control used when sex was unplanned or forced, or the birth control method failed (condom broke, missed pills) Reduces possibility of conception Can be taken up to 5 days (120 hours) after unprotected sex 75-98% effective (the earlier, the better)

11 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Birth Control Pills “The Pill” is the most popular method of birth control Pills contain estrogen & progestin Taken daily to prevent unwanted pregnancy Come in 21 or 28 day packs Progestin-only pills also available 99.7% effective (perfect use) Work by: – Suppressing ovulation (no egg released) – Thinning the lining of the uterus (egg cannot implant) – Thickening cervical mucous (difficult for sperm to penetrate)

12 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Birth Control Pills (cont’d) Advantages – Very effective – Regulates menstrual cycle – Reduces menstrual flow – Reduces cramping – Reduces acne & hirsutism – Decreases risk of ovarian & endometrial cancer – Reduces risk of PID – Completely reversible – No interruption of sex Disadvantages – No protection against STIs – Possible side effects (nausea, bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, break-through bleeding) – Need a prescription – Must remember to take pills around the same time every day – Increases risk of blood clots – Cannot use if over age 35 and a smoker

13 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Transdermal Patch - EVRA A hormonal birth control patch that is worn on the skin (99.7% effective) The patch continuously delivers estrogen & progestin through the skin Works the same way as the birth control pill Apply one patch/week for 3 weeks, then no patch on 4 th week

14 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Where to Wear the Patch

15 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Transdermal Patch (cont’d) Advantages – Effective & reversible – Once a week – Regular, lighter periods – Less PMS and cramping – Reduced risk of cancers – Less ovarian cysts and benign breast conditions Disadvantages – No STI protection – Less effective if over 198 lbs (90 kg) – Possible side effects (breast tenderness, BTB, headaches, nausea) – Risk of blood clots – Possible skin irritation – Need a prescription – Patch may fall off (less than 2%)

16 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Vaginal Ring - NuvaRing A flexible ring that is inserted into the vagina and stays there for 3 weeks The ring releases estrogen & progestin that are absorbed through the vagina into the bloodstream Works in the same manner as birth control pill 99.7% effective (perfect use)

17 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Vaginal Ring (cont’d) Advantages – Effective and reversible – Once a month – Makes periods more regular, lighter – Does not interfere with sex – Similar benefits as the birth control pill (acne, cancer, cysts, etc.) Disadvantages – No STI protection – Possible side effects from hormones (spotting, nausea, headache, etc.) – Need a prescription – Ring may fall out (uncommon) – May cause vaginal discomfort or irritation

18 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Depo Provera A hormonal method of birth control that contains progestin only (no estrogen) Given by injection every 3 months (12-13 weeks) 99.7% effective (perfect use) Works by: – Suppressing ovulation (no egg released) – Thinning the lining of the uterus (egg cannot implant) – Thickening cervical mucous (difficult for sperm to penetrate)

19 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Depo Provera (cont’d) Advantages – Only 4 times a year – May stop having periods – Can be used by people with estrogen sensitivity – Can be used while breastfeeding – Reduces risk of endometrial cancer – Improves symptoms of endometriosis – Effective & reversible Disadvantages – Causes decrease in bone density – No STI protection – Delayed return of fertility – Need a prescription – Need to see doctor/nurse for injections – Possible side effects (irregular bleeding, weight gain, headaches, mood changes)

20 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Female Sterilization “Getting your tubes tied” A surgical procedure to permanently block the fallopian tubes Prevents sperm and egg from meeting 99.5% effective

21 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Male Sterilization Also called “vasectomy” A surgical procedure to permanently block the vas deferens Stops sperm from being released into the man’s ejaculate, so the egg cannot be fertilized 99.9% effective

22 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Myths & Realities A girl can’t get pregnant if she doesn’t orgasm. A guy can’t get a girl pregnant if he doesn’t orgasm. The birth control pill is effective as soon as you start taking it. Withdrawal is an effective method of birth control if the male has good self-control. Sperm that has been deposited in the vagina 2 days before ovulation are incapable of fertilizing the egg. Douching after intercourse will help to prevent pregnancy.

23 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault The most common date-rape drug is not rohypnol – it is….. Drug facilitated sexual assault may happen a lot more often than we think Most sexual assaults are committed by a person the victim knows or trusts Most victims are women between the ages of 16-24

24 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault What can you do to protect yourself?

25 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Safety Tips Watch for signs that your drink has been spiked (tastes or looks weird, feeling giddy, drowsy, light-headed or way “too drunk”) Limit how much alcohol you drink Avoid punch bowls Watch your drink Be wary of opened drinks offered to you Use a buddy system

26 Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District Health Unit Final Remarks BE PREPARED! Protecting yourself against STI’s and pregnancy is a shared responsibility Know your partner’s sexual history Alcohol & drugs can impair your decisions If you think you might have sex, make sure you have condoms… and know how to use them correctly! Irresponsible choices you make now can affect your health, and the health of your partner, for a long time Not protecting yourself is a HUGE RISK


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