2Barriers – male condom Latex best or polyurethane Goes over ERECT penis before makescontact with the VAGINACaptures spermADVANTAGES:protect against many STDs including HIV/AIDSInexpensiveAvailable without prescriptionDISADVANTAGES:Careful handling & timing necessaryMay reduce sensation for bothSome people may be allergic to latex
3MALE CONDOM REMEMBER: Check expiry date Check packet is not damaged Use ONLY water based lubricantsDo not use OIL based lubricantsKeep condoms in dry cool placeDo not flush down toiletLeave space for sperm in the tip (but no air bubbles)Air bubbles can cause the condom to tearUSE a new condom for every NEW round!!!
4Barriers – female condom Held in place by 2 flexible ringsLines the VaginaInserted into vagina before physical contactEnd rings covers cervixOpen ring remains outside vaginaMade of polyurethaneADVANTAGES:Inexpensive & available without prescriptionHelps protect against MANY STDs including HIV/AIDsDoes not need an erection to keep in positionBoth water & oil based lubricants can be used
5Female condom DISADVANTAGES: Must be inserted before intercourse Cannot be used with a male condomMay reduce sensation or causeirritation for one or both partnersShould not be used by peoplewith polyurethane allergy
6Cervical cap & Diaphragm (with spermicide) Deep silicone cup shaped like sailors capFits around cervixHealthcare professional must determine sizeCap must be coated with spermicide prior to intercourseAfter intercourse should be left inside for at least 6 hrsShould not be worn for longer than 48hrs
7Cervical cap & Diaphragm (with spermicide) ADVANTAGES:A cervical cap or diaphragm arecomfortableDISADVANTAGES:Must be inserted before intercourseMust be a proper fit to be effectiveLess effective in women who have already given birthDiaphragm increases risk of bladder infectionWeight gain and loss can effect the fit of diaphramLess effective as vagina and cervix are stretched during childbirth
8Contraceptive spongeSoft & disposable sponge made from polyurethane foamCovers cervixBlocks sperm & also releases spermicideProtection from pregnancy begins once insertedLasts up to 24hrsNeeds to be left in place for 6hrs post intercourseNot to be worn more 30hrs
9Contraceptive sponge ADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES: Comfortable & availablewithout prescriptionDISADVANTAGES:Must be inserted before intercourseSome women experience vaginal irritationDifficulty in removalAllergic reactions
10Spermicide Chemical inserted deep into vagina Before intercourse to block & kill spermComes in many forms – including foams, creams, tablets, gels, suppositories, filmsMore effective when used with otherforms of protection
12?????????????????????????????????OUT OF ALL THE CONTRACETIVES DISCUSSED SO FAR WHICH ONE DO YOU THINK IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING PREGNANCY?
13Answer… Male CONDOM about 87% Cervical Cap (with spermicide) 85% (females who have not given birth)DIAPHRAGM 82%FEMALE condom 79%Spermicide 72%
14Hormonal contraceptives TWO TYPES:Progestin & EstrogenProgestin only1) PROGESTIN & ESTROGENCombination pillHormonal ringHormonal patch2) PROGESTIN onlyProgestin only pillHormonal injectionImplanonProgestin & Estrogen hormones released
15Basics of hormonal contraceptives PillTaken orallyReleases consistent dose of hormonesStops egg releaseHormones makes body think it has released an egg so mimics reactionWomen still has menstrual cycleHormonal RingSmall flexible ring placed invaginaRemoved after 3 weeks(out for one week) then replaced
16Basics of hormonal contraceptives Hormonal Patchthin plastic patch attaches to skinWorn for 3 weeks (new one each week)DISADVANTAGES OF ALL:May increase risk of blood clots, stroke, heart attack or high blood pressureMay cause bleeding between periods, change in weight, depression, breast tenderness….IT influences your hormones so different effects for different people!!!!
17Basics of hormonal contraceptives Hormonal injectionEvery 12 weeks by professionalCan cause bone lossImplanonSize of a matchstickFlexible plastic rodInserts into skin in upper armCan be used up to 3 years
18DO YOU THINK THE HORMONAL CONTRACEPTIVES ARE MORE EFFECTIVE THAN THE BARRIERS IN PREVENTING PREGNANCY?
19Hormonal more effective YES!!!Hormonal Injection 98%Both types Pill 92%
20INTRAUTERINE DEVICES Hormonal IUD Copper IUD Inserted by professional into uterusSmall plastic device containinghormonesSome can be left in place for 5yrsWomen in LT faithful relationshipsCopper IUDAs above for insertionPrevents sperm fertilizing egg10 yrsIncreases chance of ectopic pregnancy
21FINAL points….IUD are the most effective method of preventing pregnancy with 99% success rateHowever with all of these you need to seek professional adviceDifferent people’s bodies react differently to all forms of contraceptivesThe type of relationship you are in can determine the contraceptive choices you make
22FULL PROOF METHOD to avoid pregnancy - STERILISATION FEMALE – surgical & non-surgicalTechniques to close the fallopian tubesPermanent protection from pregnancyOnce results confirmed no other birth control is neededGenerally irreversibleMALE – surgicalVasectomyVas deferens tube carries sperm is blockedOnce results confirmed no other birth control needed
25WHAT ABOUT STDs?????Most of these methods will NOT prevent STDs unless used in combination with a CONDOM.Most of these methods are NOT recommended unless you are in a LONG TERM, SAFE and FAITHFUL relationship