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Measuring Livestock Odors Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter 225.205.4533.

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Presentation on theme: "Measuring Livestock Odors Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter 225.205.4533."— Presentation transcript:

1 Measuring Livestock Odors Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter rsheffield@agcenter.lsu.edu 225.205.4533

2 Olfaction -- Sense of Smell  Complex  Evokes a physiological and emotional reaction  Humans detect > 10,000 odors  Manure over 150 odorous compounds  Mixture of gases  Extremely low concentrations  Health impacts?

3 Gas vs Odor Measurement  Gas Identify individual gases Measure concentrations  Odor--Olfactometry Analyze mixture Correlates with odor Uses human sense of smell

4 Odor Measurement and Description  Intensity (strength)  Duration / Persistence  Frequency  Offensiveness / Hedonic tone  Character descriptor  Threshold concentrations (D/T) Detection Recognition

5 Odor TestDefinitionAnalytical Method(s) Intensity (strength) Strength of an odor sample above the detection threshold. N-butanol Duration / Persistence Measure of how easily the odor can be diluted in air: Full strength intensity divided by threshold concentration. N-butanol and D/T d Frequency Return interval (hours, days) of a detected odor. No analytical measure. Offensiveness / Hedonic tone Measure of unpleasantness of an odor. Typically displayed as a scale: -10 (unpleasant) to +10 (pleasant). Odor Panel Character descriptor Description of an odor. Trained panelists use standardized terms such as sulfide, rancid, putrid, or phenolic. Odor Panel Threshold Concentration (D/T d ) - Detection Volume of non-odorous air needed to dilute a unit volume of air to the point where panelist begin to detect an odor. Olfactometry; field olfactometer (scentometer) Threshold Concentration (D/T r ) - Recognition Volume of non-odorous air needed to dilute a unit volume of air to the point where panelist begin to recognize an odor. D/T r >/= D/T d Olfactometery

6 Odor -- Sound Analogy  Odor... Sound  Below Detection... “I can’t hear it”  Detection... “I hear something”  Recognition... “It’s Elvis!”  Intensity... “How loud is it?”

7 Odor Intensity Measurement Table 2. Odor Intensity Reference Scale Based on N - Butanol Intensity category Equivalent head space concentration of N - butanol in air (ppm)* Mixture of N - butanol in water (ppm) 0 No odor 00 1 Very Light 25250 2 Light 75750 3 Moderate 225 2250 4 Strong 6756750 5 Very strong 202520250 * Based on air temperature of 20.3 ° C

8 Duration / Persistence Intensity 0 10 Log Concentration (D/T) Decreasing

9 Character Descriptor  Smells like Mint – Musty Earth– Rotten Mold – Sewer Sulfur – Sour Ammonia – Pungent Menthol – Burned

10

11 Odor Measurement  Electronic nose Correlates gases to odors Similar to indicator gas No accepted tool for manure odors  Olfactometer Measures concentration ASTM & European Standard  Scentometer

12 Triangular Forced Choice Olfactometer  Dynamic  Triangular  Forced choice  Standardized procedures ASTM European Standard  Trained panelists

13 Box Scentometer

14 Facial Mask Field Olfactometer

15 Nasal Ranger Field Olfactometer IdaNose 

16 Fenceline H 2 S Monitoring Jerome 860 0.1 – 10 ppm OdaLog-LR 0.01 – 2 ppm

17 Odor Modeling  Correlate mathematical representations to the measured effect during real world situations. Used for technology evaluation and planning Not intended for regulatory enforcement Currently no “ag odor” model incorporates real-world terrain features  Field Sniffers  Model Comparison

18 Field Sniffers  Trained panelists  Measurements N-butanol intensity scale Scentometers Field olfactometers  Charcoal filter masks  Record intensity  Validate dispersion model

19 Field Sniffers 100 Meters Weather Station Wind Direction 50 Meters 5 - 20 Meters 200 Meters

20 Odor Methods Study Evaluate the differences of odor concentrations determined by the three field olfactometers using trained panelists  Variability between field olfactometers  Correlation to field and laboratory measured odor intensity (n-butanol)  Correlation to laboratory olfactometry panel  Correlation to field and laboratory gas analysis

21 Experimental Design Control Laboratory olfactometry Treatments Box scentometer Facial mask field olfactometer “Nasal Ranger” field olfactometer Field n-butanol Laboratory n-butanol Jerome Meter (H 2 S/TRS) Ammonia GC/MS & GC/SPME

22 TRS/H 2 S (mg/l) NH 3 (mg/l) Food Processor 0.0700.008 WWPS0.0020.039 Dairy Freestall1.1800.208 Open-Lot Dairy 1.1500.033 Feedlot1.4600.019

23 Standard Deviation of logD/T Food Processor WWPSOpen-Lot Dairy Freestall Dairy

24 Standard Deviation of Intensity

25 Emissions from Livestock Farms Methodology  38 dairy and 15 beef feeding operations  August, 2003 and the April, 2004 Three measurements  Summer (August & September)  Fall (October & November)  Spring (April)  “Blind” data set  Trained panelists – subset of panelists from Phase 1

26 Openlot Dairies

27 Corral Cleaning

28 Freestall Dairy

29 Calf Hutches

30 Heifer Facility

31 Average Dairy Odor Emissions LocationDistanceDetection Threshold Odor Intensity H 2 S/TRSNH 3 Range - unitsmeters( 1.4 – 60 )( 0 – 6 )ppm Openlot Dairies <1,000 hd Source11.42.80.0630.410 50 meters8.42.70.0380.420 200 meters3.11.50.0200.290 Openlot Dairies >1,000 hd Source17.03.70.0780.360 50 meters4.81.80.0420.270 200 meters4.51.90.0240.270 Scraped Freestall Dairies Source29.04.40.2230.530 50 meters13.43.30.1610.430 200 meters6.32.50.0780.260 Flushed Freestall Dairies Source22.24.20.3790.660 50 meters12.43.30.1730.430 200 meters8.52.80.1170.300

32 Average Feedlot Odor Emissions LocationDistanceDetection Threshold Odor Intensity H 2 S/TRSNH 3 Range - unitsmeters( 1.4 – 60 )( 0 – 6 )ppm Calf Hutches Source6.61.40.0070.125 50 meters- 200 meters- Heifer Pens Source29.13.80.0610.050 50 meters- 200 meters- Feedlots Source16.33.20.0190.185 50 meters11.02.40.0120.086 200 meters5.91.80.0060.000 Feedlot + Heifer Pens Source17.63.30.0220.177 50 meters- 200 meters-

33 Variability within Farm Groups

34 Seasonal Variability - Source

35 Seasonal Variability – 200m

36  Compost – Static  Compost – Turning of Fresh Manure  Compost - Turning  Corn Silage Bunker  Corral Cleaning  Slurry - Fresh/Vacuumed Manure Broadcast Application  Solid Manure - Corral Manure Application  Pivot Irrigation – Drag Tube @100% Manure  Pivot Irrigation – Spray Nozzles @100% Manure  Pivot Irrigation – Rotating Nozzles @100% Manure  Pivot Irrigation – “Wobble” Nozzles @100% Manure  Separated Solids Broadcast Application  Settling Basin  Settling Basin – covered Land Application and Manure Management Practices

37 Slurry Manure Application

38 Solid Manure Application

39 Solid & Slurry Manure Application PracticeDistanceDetection Threshold Odor Intensity H 2 S/TRSNH 3 Range - unitsmeters( 1.4 – 60 )( 0 – 6 )ppm Dry Corral Manure7510.43.40.0874.00 maximum21.26.00.0874.00 Dry Corral Manure10023.44.20.0090.05 maximum42.46.00.0100.10 Settled Dairy Solids709.33.20.0440.50 maximum42.45.00.0610.75 Vacuumed Manure Slurry 10011.83.20.0310.83 maximum42.45.00.0461.2

40 Wastewater Irrigation Sprinklers  Impact Sprinklers  Drop Nozzles Sprays Rotating Heads

41 Nelson R3000 Rotator Nelson S3000 Spinner Senninger I-Wob

42 Wastewater Irrigation - Drag Hose

43 PracticeDistanceDetection Threshold Odor Intensity H 2 S/TRSNH 3 Range - unitsmeters( 1.4 – 60 )( 0 – 6 )ppm Drag Tube10015.23.50.0580.00 maximum42.45.00.0050.000 “Rotator” Nozzles 10026.54.6----0.13 maximum60.05.0----0.25 “Spray” Nozzles15012.54.80.2220.28 maximum60.06.00.2950.30 “Wobbler” Nozzles 10024.14.90.0790.30 maximum42.46.00.0850.35 Liquid Effluent Land Application

44 Odor Acceptability Is the odor present acceptable ………. ( -10 ”Unacceptable” … 0 … 10 “great”) as an odor on the farm property? _________ as an odor across the property line? _________ as an odor at a rural residence? _________ as an odor at a public event or private party? _________

45 Unacceptable Odors ( { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/13/3847293/slides/slide_45.jpg", "name": "Unacceptable Odors (

46 Buffer Requirements  Most buffers are targeted on odors (even when states only have authority to minimize risk to water)  New or expanding construction  Distances vary greatly between areas  Most based on arbitrary distances rather than scientific procedures to reduce occurrence

47 OFFSET: Odor From Feedlots Setback Estimation Tool  Scientific process to establish odor based setbacks  Developed by Univ. of Minnesota, adopted by MN and MI  Develops an Odor Emission Factor for all existing and proposed facilities Values shown are for Midwestern (IA, MN, MI) conditions, and assumes flat terrain

48 Odor Emission Factor Odor Emission Number x Area (sq.ft) x Odor Control Factor 10,000 Odor Emission Number x Area (sq.ft) x Odor Control Factor 10,000 Odor Emission Number x Area (sq.ft) x Odor Control Factor 10,000 Determine Odor Emission Factor for each odor source on the farm Barns Manure Storage/Stockpiles Feed Storage

49 Odor Emission Numbers Beef: dirt/concrete lot; freestall, scrape 4/ft 2 Dairy: Freestall deep pit; Loose housing, scrape 6/ft 2 Dairy: Tie stall, scrape 2/ft 2 Earthen manure basin: 1 st,2 nd cell 20,8/ft 2 Anaerobic Lagoon4/ft 2 Steel or concrete tank, above or below ground 28/ft 2 Crusted Stockpile2/ft 2 Values shown are for Midwestern (IA, MN, MI) conditions, and assumes flat terrain

50 Odor Control Factors No odor control technology 0 Biofilter on 100% for building exhaust fans 0.1 Geotextile cover (>2.4 mm) 0.5 Straw or natural crust on manure4-inches = 0.5 8-inches = 0.3 Impermeable cover 0.1 Values shown are for Midwestern (IA, MN, MI) conditions, and assumes flat terrain

51 Determining Setback Distances 7 hrs/mo 22 hrs/mo 29 hrs/mo 44 hrs/mo 66 hrs/mo 15 hrs/mo Suggested odor annoyance free frequencies 99% ~ cities w/population >5000, hospitals 98% ~ cities w/population <5000 97% ~ residential area w/ >50 homes, churches, parks 96% ~ residential area w/ <50 homes, churches 94% ~ < 5 rural homes 91% ~ < 2 rural homes Values shown are for Midwestern (IA, MN, MI) conditions, and assumes flat terrain

52 Measuring Livestock Odors


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