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Managing Ammonia in Agriculture USDA Research Efforts.

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Presentation on theme: "Managing Ammonia in Agriculture USDA Research Efforts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Managing Ammonia in Agriculture USDA Research Efforts

2 USDA Research Emissions from Livestock Production –Buildings –Manure Storage –Manure Application Emissions from Crop Production –Fertilizer Application –Crop release and uptake

3 USDA Research Partners Agricultural Research Service Cooperative States Research, Education, and Extension Service Land Grant Universities Research Partners

4 Emissions from Livestock Production Systems

5 Complexities of Agricultural Systems ShapeSize Position on the landscape Meteorological conditions surrounding the site (daily and seasonal)

6 Landscape Positions of Buildings

7 Measurement Methods Nitrogen mass balance Flux chambers Micrometeorological methods

8 Chemiluminescence Ammonia Analyzer Detects NH 3 down to 2 ppb Cost - $17,000

9 Open-Path FTIR Measurement System for Hog Waste Lagoon

10 Instrumentation Comparisons Joint project with USDA, EPA, and Battelle Comparison of ammonia instruments around swine confinement and beef feedlot Comparison of 8 different instruments over a 2-month period

11 Air Flow Measurements Air Flow Measurements

12 Emission Rates Need to define emission rates to determine the loading rate from a facility Need to define emission rates in order to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or management techniques

13 Agricultural livestock emission factors a Composite emission factor (kg of % of composite emission factor Category NH 3 /head-year) b Housing Storage Spreading Grazing Cattle22.92195119 Hogs9.213414520 Poultry0.179400600 a McCubbin et al., 2002. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:1141-1146. b b Composite emission factors are from Battye et al. (1994). Percentages attributed to each subcategory are based on breakdowns from Asman et al. (1992).

14 Variation in Emission Rates Ammonia –3.6-42 g/d-pig place (swine)

15 Beef Feedlot

16 Odors NH 3 Dust N, C, H 2 O, pH Decrease atmospheric losses Quantify losses Modify diets & management Effectively manage manure

17 Ammonia Emission Factors AnimalEmission Kg NH 3 yr -1 an -1 Range Pig4.9 2.3 – 7.6 < 54 kg (US) 6.98 0 – 6.98 >54 kg (US) 6.98 6.98 - 11 Poultry0.22 0.18 – 0.24 Dairy21.0 18.8 – 23.5

18 Ammonia Emissions-Buildings SpeciesRange g NH 3 h -1 AU -1 Pigs 0.2 – 5.0 Dairy Cattle 0.12 – 1.48 Beef Cattle 0.28 – 0.74 Poultry 0.5 – 10.0 1 Animal Unit = 500 kg live weight

19 Experimental Study on Ammonia Release 16 m 1 m 6 m 12 m

20 Ammonia Emissions


22 Buildings and Manure Removal

23 Manure Storage Systems

24 Ammonia Emissions-Storage Manure Storage Type Emission Kg NH 3 ha -1 day -1 Lagoons 0.25 - 156 Storage Tanks 3 - 90

25 Emissions from Manure Storage Emission Deep Pit Earthen Storage Lagoons w/o photo bloom Lagoons w/ Photo bloom AmmoniaKg/site/d102142233369 MethaneKg/site/d53123466831 H 2 S Kg/site/d0. VOCKg/site/d8.623.23.40.9 Priority pollutant

26 Emission Measurements during Manure Application Energy Exchanges Ammonia sampler

27 Evaluation of Dispersion Methods and Models


29 Atmospheric Dispersion

30 Factors Affecting Ammonia Volatilization TAN concentration pHTemperatureWindspeed Chemical activity Microbiological activity Diffusive and convective transport Gas phase resistance

31 Ammonia Volatilization during Crop Senescence Corn Field in Central Iowa Measurements throughout the season Full energy balance and plant growth measurements

32 Ammonia Volatilization during Crop Growth Corn Field in Central Iowa Measurements throughout the season Full energy balance and plant growth measurements Coupled water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia measurements

33 Crop Emission and Uptake Research studies on ammonia volatilization and uptake from corn and wheat crops Ammonia deposition onto crops and rangeland in areas surrounding beef feedlots

34 Research Studies Encompass a number of species –Beef –Dairy –Poultry –Swine Encompass a range of production systems across a wide geographical area Encompass complete growing season

35 Challenges Quantify the emission rates through combined concentration and flux methods Compare emission rates across a range of facilities and agricultural practices Develop an understanding of why and how the emission rates vary within and among systems

36 Addressing these Challenges Requires good methods to measure the concentration of ammonia in the atmosphere Requires a good methodology to estimate the total emission from a facility that links flux through a given area and concentration

37 USDA Research Multi-faceted to cover a range of species and production systems Directed toward quantifying the emission rates of ammonia Focused on being able to evaluate treatment technologies that reduce ammonia emission

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