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Odor BMPS Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter 225.205.4533.

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Presentation on theme: "Odor BMPS Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter 225.205.4533."— Presentation transcript:

1 Odor BMPS Dr. Ron E. Sheffield LSU AgCenter 225.205.4533

2 Odor Emission Sources Livestock buildings Manure storage –Stockpiles, basins, lagoons Land application sites Method of land application Feed storage Mortality storage or disposal areas

3 The FIDO Factors in Odor Assessment Frequency (events/yr) Intensity (dilutions to threshold) Duration (hrs/event) Offensiveness (subjective)

4 Handling Dairy Manure

5 Technologies to Control Odor Prevent odor generation Capture or destroy odors before any release to the atmosphere Dispersion or disguise of odors

6 Buildings = Constant Source Land application –Occurs once or twice a year –Impact is for short period of time Storages –Releases decrease in cold weather –Management may affect releases significantly Buildings typically release a relatively constant amount of odors & gases compared to:

7 Odor Prevention Technologies Manure removal Dust control Anaerobic treatment Aeration or Oxidation Feed additives Manure pit or lagoon additives pH control

8 Frequent Manure Removal Frequent removal of manure from floor surfaces reduces the generation of odors in a building.

9 Manure Separation Why are you separating?? It’s not always about loading…… Sand, grit, debris Difficult to remove fine particles/nutrients Knowledge of flowrate is critical Efficiency?? Don’t believe what you are told!!

10 Sources of Odor from Outdoor Lots Open lots Manure stockpiles Disposal pits Land application areas Runoff holding ponds Anaerobic lagoons (liquid manure handling) DUST

11 Driver #1: Loose Manure Depth Deep and soft Thin and well compacted

12 Manure harvested within previous 3 days, < 1” deep Wind Manure not yet harvested, > 2” deep Loose manure compounded by evening cow activity (Driver #2)

13 Driver #3: Manure Moisture Content

14 Moisture Dynamics Vary Within Corrals Feed apron 1234 Water trough High activity; High moisture Low activity; Low moisture

15 Moisture Dynamics Vary Within Corrals (continued) Feed apron 1234 Water trough High activity; High moisture Low activity; Low moisture

16 Raising the moisture content of a loose manure layer by 10% requires 6-9 gal/hd per 1 inch of loose manure depth depending on its bulk density. Catch-Up Water Requirements 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 5101520253035 Initial Moisture Content (% wet basis) Water Requirement (gal/hd) 0.5" 1" 2" 4"

17 Odorous volatiles Methane (CH 4 ) and other gases Complete Anaerobic Digestion Volatile solids Methane- producing bacteria Acid- producing bacteria

18 Odorous volatiles Methane (CH 4 ) and other gases Incomplete Anaerobic Digestion Volatile solids Methane- producing bacteria Acid- producing bacteria Limitations: Design/Construction Poor Management Cold Temperatures

19 Treatment: Anaerobic Digestion

20 Treatment: High-rate Aeration

21 Treatment: “Compost” Systems

22 Chemical Additives to Manure for Odor and Gas Control Difficult to determine effectiveness of the many additives that are available Relatively few products have been shown to significantly reduce odor or gases like NH 3. Products are available for addition to either liquid or solid manure. Concern over cost per animal per year

23 Chemical Additives to Manure for Odor and Gas Control Effectiveness depended on specific irritant Ammonia reduction in liquid manure –39 products were effective –18 not effective Odor reduction –22 helped –33 did not

24 Technologies to Capture and Treat Odors Manure storage covers –“Biological” cover –Synthetic cover Mechanically ventilated production houses –Biofilters –Biomass filters –Washing walls

25 Straw cover being installed on a 4-acre lagoon in Iowa

26 Cross Section of Biological Cover Effluent Anaerobic Zone Solution Interface Aerobic Zone 8 - 12” Straw Cover Conventional Storage “Biologically” Covered Storage Effluent

27 Straw cover after 1 week

28 Geotextile Cover ~ $0.15/sq.ft. installed BioCap TM

29 “Berm to Berm” Basin/Lagoon Cover $0.63/ft 2 installed

30 Technologies to Disperse Odors Site Selection Ventilation Design Windbreak/Dustbreak Walls Vegetated Wind Breaks Perfumes Masking Agents Developed primarily for mechanically ventilated systems … but theory needs to be adopted for open freestalls and corrals

31 Windbreak/Dustbreak Walls Lagoon Some dust will be deposited Plume dispersion and breakup

32 Red Smoke Candle Showing Fan Airflow Toward Windbreak Wall on Swine Finishing Building

33 Red Smoke Showing Airflow Out of Windbreak Wall Enclosure

34 Air Dam: 1,000hd Finishing Barn

35 Open Face Biofilter: 400-hd Farrowing Barn, MN

36 Container Biofilter In-Vessel Food Composting Site, MN

37 Most Complaints Arise from Land Application

38 Wastewater Irrigation Dilute 1:5 –10 H 2 O Maximize droplet size –Large nozzles –Low pressures Minimize distance droplets move through the air –Downward projecting nozzles –Drops to put nozzles in canopy or close to ground No wastewater irrigation if >10mph

39 Drop Hoses

40 Slurry Application Application MethodOdor Threshold Broadcast2818 Plow200 Harrow131 Inject32 Unmanured50

41 Drop Hose Toolbar

42 Aerator Incorporator Aerator tines Manure applicators 7.5-inch spacing

43 Injection Running double disk injectors deeper covers manure better but also covers more crop residue.

44 Injection Direct injection of manure is the most effective way to minimize gaseous emissions.

45 Sweep Injector No Till Injector

46 Sweep Injector No-Till Injector Soybean Stubble in SC Coastal Plain Applied at 60,000 gallons per hour

47 Odor Management Plans

48 Contents of OMP IDAHO –Facility Information –Facility Description Vicinity Map –Manure Management System Site Plan –Land Application System –Climatic Data –Facility Odor Sources –Tiered Odor Reduction –Public Involvement –Review

49 Facility Odor Sources Bulleted List of potential odor sources –General ranking of sources overall Discussion of each source –Why is it a source? –How much does it contribute? Justification for ranking Ranking –Surface area, frequency, duration, intensity –Other data – chemical comp., location, etc.

50 Tiered Odor Reduction Tiers –Enable facility to assess reduction techniques “individually” –Prevents facility from spending large amounts of money all at once Allows to determine if more is needed IDAHO –3-Tiered process

51 Tiered Odor Reduction 3-Tiers –Each tier identifies Odor reduction techniques –Justification – expected result How & when implemented Sources impacted Monitoring plan for BMP Evaluation –Tier 1 Typically low cost BMP’s & management changes Should attempt to address all major issues on facility –Tier 2 & 3 Build on tier 1 – more expensive and intense

52 Public Involvement Discretion of producer Key item –If public isn’t impacted, wouldn’t be developed Prevention, animal & employee health Identify –How public will be involved Keep them aware of actions taken How process is going OMP will not be successful w/o public satisfied

53 Review The final section of an OMP Should describe –How plan will be assessed –Who will assess –When each tier will be evaluated OMP is a working document –Should allow for change & flexibility –Should limit the impact on how the facility functions

54 Take Home Message Understanding the waste system is essential –Can’t select appropriate reduction measures w/o understanding system Odor reduction - Operation & Management Thoroughly investigate reduction techniques before they are implemented If public is not satisfied, OMP never truly successful Employ PREVENTION, not reaction

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