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Dr. Afxendiou Sachem North High School. Political turmoil followed the fall of the Han during the "period of the Six Dynasties" (220-589 C.E.) and the.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Afxendiou Sachem North High School. Political turmoil followed the fall of the Han during the "period of the Six Dynasties" (220-589 C.E.) and the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Afxendiou Sachem North High School

2 Political turmoil followed the fall of the Han during the "period of the Six Dynasties" (220-589 C.E.) and the empire's bureaucratic apparatus collapsed. a foreign religion, Buddhism, replaced Confucianism as a primary force in cultural life

3  Wendi founder. Won popularity by lowering taxes and establishing granaries to ensure a stable, cheap food supply  Greatest accomplishment: the completion of the Grand Canal  The Grand Canal connected the Huang He and the Chang Jiang : was vital for trade.  Connected the northern cities to the southern rice- producing region




7 Due to the endless labor of peasants on state projects like the Grand Canal and the Great Wall, peasants revolted and killed the second Sui Emperor in 618

8 Tang Dynasty, 618-907 Song Dynasty, 960-1127 Both had major achievements which diffused along trade routes Both effected Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Europe….. AND THE WORLD

9 extended the empire's reach to the borders of Afghanistan, stretched into Tibet, Vietnam, Manchuria, and Korea. A restored scholar-gentry elite and reworked Confucian ideology helped the Tang to maintain imperial unity extended the examination system, and civil service advancement patterns were regularized

10 Confucian revival threatened Buddhism’s place in Chinese life Many previous rulers had been strong Buddhist supporters Mahayana Buddhism won wide mass acceptance during the era of war and turmoil Elite Chinese accepted Chan Buddhism, or Zen, which stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty Early Tang rulers continued to patronize Buddhism, especially Empress Wu (690-705). She endowed monasteries, commissioned colossal statues of Buddha, and sought to make Buddhism the state religion

11 Confucians and Daoists opposed Buddhist growth, castigating it as an alien faith Confucian scholar-administrators worked to convince the Tang that untaxed Buddhist monasteries posed an economic threat to the empire persecution under Emperor Wuzong (841-847). Thousands of monasteries and shrines were destroyed; hundreds of thousands of monks and nuns had to return to secular life Confucianism emerged as the enduring central ideology of Chinese civilization

12 1. Block Printing Letters carved on wooden boards, covered with ink, & printed on paper Replaced word of mouth and handwritten books 868- first printed book was made in China - (Buddhist teachings) Effect: ideas spread quickly because books were printed quickly Printing technology spread to Japan, Korea, Vietnam

13 2. Gunpowder Used for fireworks/ celebrations/ parades Effect: potential for new weapons of war

14 Trade flourished along the Silk Road

15 Tang Dynasty revived and expanded civil service examinations Those who pass became part of an elite group of scholar-officials

16 Much smaller territory and militarily weaker than the Tang. Could not defeat northern nomads. Confucian ideas and values dominated intellectual life Song paid many northern peoples tribute, and maintained a large army to protect against invasion, thus draining state resources and burdening the peasantry emphasis on scholar-gentry concerns contributed to military decline

17 neo-Confucianism- produced differing interpretations of Confucianism and Daoism, and aim was to prove the superiority of indigenous thought - cultivation of personal morality was the highest human goal Hostility to foreign thought prevented the entry of innovations from other societies, while the stress on tradition stifled critical thinking within China. emphasis on rank, obligation, deference, and performance of rituals reinforced class, gender, and age distinctions authority of the patriarchal family head was strengthened

18 The Song fled south after nomadic invasions and established a capital at Hangzhou in the Yangtze River basin. The small southern Song dynasty ruled from 1127 to 1279.

19 1. Moveable type Separate letters carved into clay blocks and baked covered with ink, & printed on paper Effect: quicker way to print books printing technology diffused to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Paper and printing reached Europe by 1100

20 2. Gunpowder Used for warfare in Song Dynasty New weapons: grenades, bombs, canons, flame throwers Effect: China dominated Japan, Korea, and Vietnam with superior weapons nature of warfare changed: “whoever has guns wins”

21 3. Porcelain Pottery that is almost unbreakable Rose to high art form in Song Effect: expensive art that was highly prized in Asia and Europe - became a symbol of wealth, especially in Western Europe



24 4. Improved Agricultural Production New type or rice can offer two harvests per year Increased food, increased population, increased trade Effect: more trade with Northern China increased population

25 5. Increased Ocean trade - Advances in sailing technology Chinese merchants went directly to foreign ports; Chinese junks were among the best ships in the world Effect: more trade with Korea, Japan and even as far as the Middle East and East Africa

26 6. first paper money system Credit vouchers, called flying money, assisted transactions in distant markets Effect: easier to conduct business

27 status of women was improving under the Tang and early Song, but steadily declined during the late Song – empresses Wu and Wei, and royal concubine Yang Guifei, exercised considerable power independence and legal rights of elite minority of women worsened under the influence of Neo-Confucian thinkers New laws favored males in inheritance and divorce, and females were excluded from the educational system. The painful, mobility-restricting practice of foot binding exemplifies the lowly position imposed upon women in late Song times

28 Chinese achievements & belief systems spread to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam along established trade routes For centuries, China was the dominant culture in East Asia Chinese achievements spread to European culture during the Middle Ages

29 Technological innovations: moveable type and gunpowder. Advances in mathematics-arithmetic and algebra Agriculture improvements: cultivation of rice (faster ripening rice) produced more food Trade Flourished: Silk Road (until end of Tang Dynasty) Increased Ocean Trade-advances in sailing technology Golden Age of Poetry and Art

30 Tang Only Expanded the Empire, had woman emperor, adopted Buddhism Song Only Ruled smaller empire, developed into a great sea power, created paper money and movable type Both: Prospered through trade, improved agriculture, created great art and literature

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