5Origins of Imperialism The Industrial Revolution had led to the massive increase of production and consumption.This caused European nations (America Later) to find new markets to sell their goods, and new areas to obtain raw materials fromImperialism is the practice where a state takes political and economic control of an area beyond its boardersThough some areas will avoid imperialism (Japan, Thailand, Iran, & Afghanistan) large parts of the world were affected
8In Old Imperialism Europeans would take control of a land, sail into a port, pick up goods (spices, products, slaves), paid in silver, and sailed away.Under New Imperialism Europeans still took control of these areas, but now they took more control of the politics and economics of these foreign lands.New Imperialism
9Political & Socio-Economic Factors Politically Europeans engaged in Imperialism as a way to control key areas (and deprive their competition of it)Socio-Economically European nations needed imperialism.Mid-late 1800s Europe experienced unemployment, poverty, and strikesThe ability to conquer and control foreign territory was a source of national pride, and one that helped people forget problems at home
10White Man’s BurdenEuropeans also viewed themselves as superior to many parts of the worldIt became a culturally accepted belief that it was their duty to help “civilize” the less developed people of the worldBritish Poet Rudyard Kipling famously called this the, “White Man’s Burden.”Though this point of view was extremely racist, it helped to justify European actions
14Imperialism In Asia South Asia India The British East India Company controlled Indian for a period of timeThe “Great Rebellion” broke out in India because the British had ignored very specific Hindu & Muslim religious beliefs regarding animal fatThe British would regain control, but would take more direct control over the area. Parliament would almost directly control the Raj (Ruler)Later the high ranking officials in India would be groomed by Europeans. They would sit in high positions, but never actually created laws or policies.Imperialism In Asia
15Imperialism in Asia Central & Southwest Asia Iran Russia had systematically been expanding southwards since the 1500sBritain saw this as a threat and the two empires clashedThe British and Russians would have independence spheres of influence in PersiaAfghanistan acted as a buffer (Meaning neither could take it over)Imperialism in Asia
17Imperialism in Asia East Asia China suffered greatly from European ImperialismThough the Chinese were a developed nation, they could not match the technology of EuropeansGermany, France, Russia, Britain and Japan would all claim areas of China as their ownThe Japanese also displayed their changed island by defeating the Chinese and Russians in separate warsImperialism in Asia
19Imperialism in Asia South East Asia Britain had expanded over from Indian into SE Asia claiming Burma, parts of Mainland Malaysia, and SingaporeThe French claimed Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and parts of Indonesia because of a history of religious missions in those areasThe Spanish would gain control of the Philippines, but later lose it to the United StatesSiam (Thailand was free)
21Africa Africa will become the next main area that Europeans colonized. Originally Europeans had colonies close to the coast so they could pick up shipments of gold and slavesEventually they will claim much of the continent with little regard for natural borders.
23Boers or AfrikanersThe British who settled in South Africa became known as Boers or AfrikanersThey constantly moved inland in search of better land, and for that reason came into conflict with African Natives (whom the Boers enslaved)Once the British outlawed slavery the Boers formed three republics where slavery was legal. The British would annex one, but legally recognize the other two
24The British and Boers would come into conflict on numerous occasions, and eventually fight two wars in 1881 and 1899 known as the Boer WarsSouth Africa also experienced an economic boom from the diamond and gold deposits found in the area1880, due to increase economic activity on the continent, and more land being claimed, the Scramble for Africa would begin
25Scramble for AfricaEgypt was an important region during the Scramble for Africa.Both the British and the French had invested in Egypt, and were concerned with the nations well beingA major reason for the concern was the Suez Canal, which was built with the help of the French, and extensively used by the British
26Britain would invade Egypt to help “stabilize” it French would expand their territorial possessions from AlgeriaGermans would claim portions of both African CoastDutch would claim the Congo Valley River BasinThe European powers would hold a conference to discuss the well being of AfricaReally numerous back room deals were made where boarders were drawn upThe Africans had no representation at this meeting.
27There was resistance across Africa to much of the Imperialist attempts by European powers The King of Ethiopia had modernized his country, including his rather large militaryItaly attempted to conquer Ethiopia, but suffered huge casualties for their effortEthiopia would be recognized as a sovereign and independent nationEthiopia
28Imperialism in Latin America Numerous nations in Latin America had won their independence in the 1800sThe British, and other European powers, still saw opportunities in Latin AmericaThey wanted nations they were trading partners with to become more economically important, so European nations would influence or hinder Latin American nations to their benefit.
29Americas for Americans In 1832, James Monroe closed the American Continents to “Future colonization by any European powers.”This is known as the Monroe Doctrine.In 1904 Theodor Roosevelt would Introduce the Roosevelt CorollaryHe said it was the US’ job to protect the weak countries of the Western Hemisphere and to act as “international police power.”Americas for Americans
31The US would become involved in the Spanish American War By declaring the Roosevelt Corollary President Roosevelt did two thingsStated Europe had no reason to interfere in Latin AmericaThe US was now strong enough to fight off European Powers if they needed toRoosevelt’s threat did not stop the British or French from establishing and officially claiming lands in South America, but it did slow them down.The US would become involved in the Spanish American War
32The Spanish American War The US would get involved in the Spanish American war to aid CubaThe War lasted only 4 months and the US easily wonThe official peace stated:Cuba gets their independence, but permanently leases a military base at Guantanamo Bay to the USAThe Platt Amendment & Teller Amendment will stop the US from annexing CubaThe US gets Puerto Rico and GuamThe US gains the Philippines in exchange for $20 Million.So Europeans shouldn’t mess with Latin America… but the US could
33Panama CanalRoosevelt was annoyed that during the Spanish American War ships had to sail around South American to get to the PhilippinesRoosevelt tried to buy the land but was turned down, so instead encouraged the Panamanian people to rebel against Columbia.The 2 biggest obstacles to overcome were disease & geographyIt took 10 years and 40,000 workers but the canal was completed
34Imperialism:GoodBadEurope came to view foreign nations as people with skills -> Slavery was bad (by 1888 outlawed in ALL Western Countries)Western medicine helped cure diseasesInfrastructure (roads, bridges, etc) greatly improved in countries to aid tradeLots of people (natives) died trying to resist stronger European armiesDestruction of native cultures, traditions, religionsNations lost their identity starting decades long independence movements