Presentation on theme: "Height of Imperialism 1800-1914. European nations began to view Asian and African societies as a source of industrial raw materials and a market for."— Presentation transcript:
Height of Imperialism
European nations began to view Asian and African societies as a source of industrial raw materials and a market for Western manufactured goods.
1880’s an intense scramble for overseas territory began, IMPERIALISM, the extension of a nation’s power over other lands, was not new, this imperialism was because now sought nothing less than direct control over vast territories.
Why did westerners begin to increase their search for colonies?: a.) strong economic motive b.) heated rivalries and colonies would give you an advantage. c.) source of national pride. d.) tied to social Darwinism and racism. e.) religious and humanitarian approach. Was white mans burden to bring our advancement
1. Great Britain Started the process in Southeast Asia. Singapore, “city of the Lion” was first, then to Burma. 2. France Vietnam is where it had influence, split into two parts a north and a south. Vietnam became a French protectorate (a political unit that depends on another government for its protection) France extended its control over neighboring Cambodia, Tonkin and Laos. All called Union of French Indochina.
3. Thailand the Exception Thailand was the only free state remaining in Southeast Asia. Two rulers kept this free because European countries were trying to move in. Thailand became a buffer state between France and Britain. 4. The USA George Dewey defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay. Philippines became an America colony, We had a desire to mix moral idealism and profit in this area. Emillo Aguinaldo as the leader of a movement for independence of Philippines’. They lost and we kept it as a colony.
Western powers governed their new colonial empires by either indirect or direct rule. Their chief goals were to exploit the natural resources of the lands and to open up markets for their own manufactured goods.
Sometimes a colonial power could realize its goals by cooperating with local officials. Known as indirect rule. Local rulers were allowed to keep their authority and status in a new colonial setting. Was cheaper to use, not always possible. Direct rule meant we had to replace local officials with western officials.
Did not want colonists to develop own industries. Colonial policy stressed the export of raw materials, often this led to some form of plantation agriculture. Colonial rule did bring some benefits to Southeast Asia. A modern economic system began there---Railroads, highways.
Many subject people resented being governed by western powers. At first, resistance came from the existing class. Sometimes it took the form of peasant revolts. Early resistance movements were overcome by western power. Eventually the force of nationalism came and the leaders came from westernize intellectuals in the cities. It was not until 1930’s though that these movements actually began to ask for national independence.
Extension of a nation’s power over other lands Imperialism Colonial powers harmed their colonies by keeping wages___, and taxes ___? Low and high For the U.S., the Spanish American War resulted in what? New territories Governing by working with existing political elites. Indirect rule
What country controlled Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos? France “city of the lion” Singapore
In Burma, this country engaged in activities that led to the collapse of the Burmese monarchy? Britain Political unit dependent on another for protection? Protectorate Replacement of local rulers with officials from the mother country Direct rule