Presentation on theme: " Add to your graphic organizer or notes. Established in 1607 English merchants given a charter by King James I 105 colonists – with little farming."— Presentation transcript:
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Established in 1607 English merchants given a charter by King James I 105 colonists – with little farming experience and other skills… uh oh! London Company – joint-stock company of investors to share the costs and risks of starting a colony.
John Smith: took control of the colony and rewarded hard workers with food! o Made an agreement with the Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans who brought colonists food and taught them how to grow corn. 400 more settlers arrived in 1609, but again winter, disease, and famine hit the colony (starving time). o Lack of preparation cost a lot of colonists their lives. o By the spring of 1610 only 60 colonists of the original 505 remained
Jamestown was unprofitable until John Rolfe introduced a new type of tobacco that sold well back in England. Rolfe married Pocahontas (daughter of the Powhatan leader) – scandalous!!! o This resulted in more peaceful relations with the Powhatan! After Pocahontas died, colonist killed a Powhatan leader… o Powhatans responded by attacking the settlers. o War continued for 20 years. London Company could not protect its colonists, so the English crown made it a royal colony (authority given to a governor chosen by the king).
Headright System: colonists who paid their own way to Virginia received 50 acres of land. o Earn another 50 for every additional person brought o Rich colonists could afford to bring servants and relatives = received a lot more land… Indentured Servants: signed a contract to work 4-7 years for those who paid for their journey to America. o Necessary in part because a high death rate resulted in labor shortages. Slavery: demand for workers was greater than the number of people willing to work as indentured servants while costs of slaves fell = many colonists turned to this.
Colonial officials began to ask for more taxes (protested by poor colonist). Colonists were also upset about the governor’s policies toward Native Americans (wasn’t doing enough to protect against attack). Nathaniel Bacon led a group of indentured servants on an attack on some FRIENDLY American Indians in o Opposed the governor’s policies promoting trade with American Indians and thought the colonists should be able to take their land. Bacon’s Rebellion: governor tried to stop Bacon, so he and his followers attacked and burned Jamestown.
Establish in 1634 Became a refuge for English Catholics who were experiencing religious persecution (Church of England did not allow them to worship freely as they opposed the separation from the Roman Catholic Church).
George Calvert (first Lord Baltimore) asked King Charles I for a charter to establish a new colony for Catholics. King Charles I issued a charter for the colony in Cecilius Calvert (George’s son/second Lord Baltimore) took over planning of the colony. Proprietary Colony – government was controlled by the colony’s owners (proprietors). Raised corn, cattle, and hogs for food Eventually began growing tobacco for profit.
1640s Protestants began moving to Maryland resulting in religious conflict. Toleration Act of 1649: bill presented by Lord Baltimore to reduce tensions due to religious conflicts… o Crime to restrict the religious rights of Christians. o Did not stop all religious conflicts but it did show that the government wanted to offer religious freedom and protect the rights of minority groups.
Establish in 1663 (split in 1712) Charles II gave land between Virginia and Spanish Florida to some supporters Split because settlements were too far apart to govern.
Proprietors (colony’s owners) managed the colony poorly The propriety government was overthrown in English Crown purchased both North and South Carolina in 1729 = became a royal colony Relied heavily on plantation life o Encouraged owners to bring thousands of slaves o 1730 – 20,000 enslaved Africans and about 10,000 white settlers
Established in 1733 King George II granted a charter to James Oglethorpe to shield Britain’s colonies from Spanish controlled Florida.
Oglethorpe wanted a place where debtors in England could make a new start! He did not want large plantations owned by few wealthy individuals but rather many small farms. Originally slavery was outlawed and the size of land grants were limited o Soon however, slaves provided the labor for the many rice plantations. Settlers were unhappy with the strict rules and in 1752 Georgia was turned into a royal colony.
Depended on agriculture (consisted of small farms and large plantations) so the warm climate and long growing season was ideal. Exported materials for building ships (wood/tar) Traded with local Indians for deerskins to sell. Cash crops sold for profit (tobacco, rice, indigo) o Cash crops required a great deal of difficult work meaning a large workforce was needed… slavery.
1700s – enslaved Africans became the main source of labor (rather than indentured servants). Slavery was viciously brutal – torture, murder, etc. by masters that went unpunished. Slave Codes: laws to control slaves/prevent revolt o Colonies with large numbers of slaves had the strictest codes o Fear of revolt forced South Carolina to make a law that slaves could not hold meetings or weapons.
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Pilgrims were one Separatist group that left England to escape religious persecution. o Separatists – English Protestants who wanted to separate from the Church of England (formed their own churches). Punished by Anglican leaders. Practice their religion freely in the Netherlands o Did not like their children learning the Dutch culture/language (forget their English traditions) Left Europe completely => Virginia o Formed a joint-stock company with merchants and received permission to leave. o 1620: Mayflower left England with 100 people.
Landed in America they were outside of the authority of Virginia’s colonial government. o Established their own basic laws and social rules. 1620 – 41 male passengers on the Mayflower signed the Mayflower Compact: o Legal contract where they agreed to have fair laws to protect the general good. o First attempt at self-government.
Samoset – Native American who interacted with Pilgrims o Gave them information about the peoples and places of the area o Introduced them to a Pawtuxet Indian, Squanto: Taught the Pilgrims how to fertilize the soil with fish remains Establish relationships between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians – invited their chief and 90 others to celebrate their harvest: THANSGIVING – survival of the new colony!
Many became farmers although the farmland was poor. Tried to trade furs and fish in order to make money but the fishing and hunting conditions weren’t good either. o Some traded beaver furs with American Indians for corn. Family based Community o Taught their children (and some indentured servants) to read o Families = center for religious life, health care, and community well- being. All family members worked together. Women had more legal rights (GO GIRL!) than in England. o Right to sign contracts and to bring some cases before local courts o Widows could also own property
In the 1620s there were a lot of economic (unemployment), political (higher taxes by King Charles I), and religious (Church of England punished Puritans because they disagreed with official opinions – dissenters) problems. o Great Migration: many thousands of English left England (40,000 moved to English colonies in New England and the Caribbean) o Charles I granted a charter for Puritans to settle in New England => Massachusetts Bay Colony. o 1630 they left England to seek religious freedom led by John Winthrop – made a covenant with God to build an ideal Christian community.
Massachusetts Bay Colony had to obey English laws but it was more independent than Virginia’s royal colony o General Court like a self-government to represent the needs of the people. o Each town sent 2/3 delegates to the Court. o Elected the governor and his assistants o 1644 it became a bicameral (two house) legislature Religion/government were closely linked o Government leaders were also church members and ministers often had a great deal of power. o Male church members were the only ones who could vote o God’s “elect” to become a full church member – prove your faith is strong.
Thomas Hooker: helped found Connecticut (New England colony). o Wrote the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut – set of principles that made CT’s government more democratic and outlined the powers of the General Court. Roger Williams: minister who did not agree with some religious views. o Called for his church to separate from other N.E. congregations. o Criticized the General Court for taking land from Indians without pay o Puritan leaders made him leave and he took his supporters and formed a settlement called Providence (later developed into Rhode Island) Separation of church and state and religious tolerance.
Anne Hutchinson: outspoken about religious ideas, which were considered radical (i.e. a person’s relationship with God did not need guidance from ministers). o She was put on trial (did not agree with views and did not think women should be religious leaders) and forced her out of the colony – helped found the settlement of Portsmouth (later Rhode Island) Witchcraft Trials (early 1690s): people were accused of casting spells and a special court was formed. o Court often pressured witches to confess o Ended with 19 people put to death o Salem, Massachusetts.
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Climate was harsh, rocky soil o Few farms could grow cash crops o Most grew crops and raised cattle only for their own use o Little demand for laborers (slavery was not as Important here Merchants o Traded locally, with other colonies, and overseas o Leading members with their power and wealth Fishing o Rich waters = many fish that were then exported o Hunted whales which provided valuable oil for lighting
Shipbuilding o Had forests to provide materials for building o As trade (including slaves) in the seaports grew, more ships were built o Fishing industry needed ships Craftspeople o Young boys learned skills as apprentices in trades such as blacksmithing, weaving, shipbuilding, and printing.
Desire for children to be able to read the Bible – some laws requiring instruction. Public Education o Wanted educated ministers => town schools (founded in every township of 50 families) o Learned to read at the same time as they learned religious values o Many stopped after elementary grades to work on family farms or away from home. Higher Education o 1636 Harvard founded (taught ministers) o 1693 William and Mary established in Virginia o 1700 – 70% of men and 45% of women could read and write.
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Wide river valleys, thick forests, and excellent harbors between New England and Virginia. Good land and moderate climates Prominent (powerful/wealthy) English people established colonies that promised religious freedom. Originally inhabited by the Dutch (Henry Hudson gave claim to land along the Hudson River) and Swedes.
Trading colony established by the Dutch West India Company in 1621 o Founded in 1613 as a trading post for furs with the Iroquois. Center of trade was New Amsterdam (where the Hudson River enters the New York Harbor). Prosperous and tolerant of different religions – welcomed all new people. o Gave huge portions of land to anyone who would bring 50 new settlers. o Landowners (patroons) ran these estates as they pleased enforcing their own laws – people who worked the estate had little voice. o Jews, French Huguenots, Puritans, and others came for religious reasons.
Fur trade brought settlers from Sweden – establishing New Sweden. o Seen as a rival for trade by the Dutch so in 1647 Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, seized the colony and made it part of New Netherland. o Swedes who stayed cut trees and notched the logs to build log cabins (became the frontier home). 1664, King Charles II (new king of England) sent his younger brother, James, Duke of York to seize the Dutch colony. o Colonists were tired of Stuyvesant’s rule so without a fight, New Netherland surrendered and became New York. o New York attracted settlers seeking religious freedom from Scotland, France, and other European countries.
Duke of York could not manage all of his land because it was too large. o Gave some of his land to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret and was named New Jersey. o Kept up York’s policy of religious freedom. o Diverse population of Dutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scots o Fur trade was important to both New York and New Jersey’s economy.
South of New Jersey, William Penn founded a colony as home to his religious community, the Quakers: o Believed that all people, wealthy or poor, male or female, were equal in the sight of God (persecuted against in England). o Refused to take oaths and women were allowed to speak in their meetinghouses. o Supported nonviolence (opposed war and would not serve in the army), refused to pay taxes, and believed in religious tolerance for all people. Pennsylvania was established in 1681 when King Charles II granted him a charter. o To attract settlers, he distributed pamphlets describing the beauty and richness.
Government based on religious freedom and popular support of the government. o Representative Self-Government: reflecting the needs of its citizens’ will. o Treated Native Americans fairly, paying them for their land. Farms quickly grew Tight-knit communities that kept their customs (as many German settlers came to flee religious persecution).
1682, Duke of York sold Penn a region (three counties) south of Pennsylvania. o Became known as Delaware (part of Pennsylvania until 1776) Pennsylvania was landlocked (lack of seaports to ship their products) o Farmers produced large quantities that needed to be exported. o Gave the Pennsylvania colony access to the Atlantic Ocean and shipping to England. Too hard to unite Pennsylvania with lower counties, which caused trouble. o Penn allowed the area to elect their own assembly, although he remained governor. o Later broke away and developed into a separate colony of Delaware.
NOTES Will be on the WRITTEN TEST!!
Your family migrated to America in the 1700s and started a small farm in western Pennsylvania. Now, more and more people are moving in. You would like to move farther west, into the Ohio River valley. But a new law says you cannot move west of the mountains because it is too dangerous. When English colonists came to America, they expected to have the same rights as they did back in England. o English officials, however wanted tight control over the colonies o Colonists grew very unhappy with the policies of the colonial government.
Each English colony had their own government – granted power by a charter. o The English monarch had ultimate authority o Privy Council (royal advisors) set colonial policies Each colony had a governor – head of the government o Advisory council royal colonies o Governor was chosen by the king or queen of royal colonies and council members. o Proprietary colonies o Proprietary colonies – owners chose their officials o In some (CT), people elected the governor
Assemblies – people chosen as elected representatives to help make laws o Their policies had to be approved by the advisory council and then by the governor. Virginia had the first colonial legislature (1619) o Eventually split into two houses (bicameral) Council of State Council of State: the advisory council/London Company selected members House of Burgesses House of Burgesses: elected by the colonists New England held town meetings (talked about/decided on issues of local interest) Southern colonies were too spread out so most decisions were made at the county level Middle Colonies used both county and town meetings to make laws
James II came to power in 1685 and wanted more control (in England AND in colonies) o 1686 he united the northern colonies under the government called the Dominion of New England Too independent Sir Edmund Andros was appointed as the royal governor (his authority limited the power of town meetings – low approval rating) King James was replaced and Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights in 1689: o Reduced the power of the English monarch and gave more to Parliament o Colonists valued their right to elect representatives (decide on local issues) – in the Dominion they formed new colonial assemblies and charters.
Courts generally reflected the beliefs of local communities (controlled local affairs) o Laws in the Bible set standards for Puritans’ in Massachusetts Protection of Individual freedoms o 1733 – John Peter Zenger was arrested for damaging New York governor’s reputation with something he published Publish what he wanted (as long as it is true) = Not Guilty
England founded and controlled the colonies to earn profits from trade. o Mercantilism: system of creating and maintaining wealth through controlling its trade. o Wealth = fewer imports than exports Navigation Acts ( ), which limited colonial trade o Forbid trade of certain items with any country other than England o Use English ships to transport goods o Trade goods had to pass through English ports – duties (import taxes) were added. England argued that this provided the colonies with a steady market Not all colonist agreed and wanted more freedom to buy and sell for the best price (taking away England’s monopoly) o Navigation Acts stayed, and smuggling often took place
Trade was INDIRECT between the colonies and Great Britain Triangular Trade: a system where goods AND slaves were traded among the Americans, Britain, and Africa. o Colonist exchanged beef and flour with plantation owners in West Indies for sugar (some sugar was shipped to Britain). o Sugar was exchanged for manufactured products to be sold in the colonies Trade of rum for slaves on the W. African coast – sold enslaved Africans in the West Indies for molasses or brought them to sell in the colonies o Middle Passage o Middle Passage: brought millions of Africans across the Atlantic – could last as long as 3 months
On the voyage: o Lived in spaces no larger than 3 feet high. o Very crowded (traders had to make the most profit) o Many died from diseases like smallpox. o Fewer indentured servants meant a higher demand for slaves for the farmers in the colonies.
Early 1700s revolutions regarding religious and nonreligious ideas sparked in both Europe and the colonies. o Many colonist fled Europe to get away from religious persecution and were very dedicated to practicing their religion. o There was fear that congregations were becoming too interested in wealth and drifting away from religion. Great Awakening: renewed interest in religion that also affected social and political life. o Jonathan Edwards o Jonathan Edwards (MA) – dramatic sermons encouraging sinners to seek forgiveness. o George Whitefield o George Whitefield revivals from Georgia to New England o Drew people of different regions, classes, and races (represented some of the few exchanges between colonies). o Spiritual equality paved the way for political/social equality
Emphasis on science and reason as guides for life based on ideas found during the Scientific Revolution: o More understanding of the basic laws that govern nature and dramatically changed how people thought about the world. o Explain the how and why of things logically through reason Social contract between government and citizens (what does this mean?). John Locke John Locke (philosopher) thought that people had natural rights such as equality and liberty. o Purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights – if a ruler or government failed to ensure these rights, the person or government should be changed.
Russia had fur-trading posts on the Pacific Coast in the region that is Alaska and Canada today. Spain claimed a large part of the Southwest as New Spain. o Mexico and parts of present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and California. o Florida and islands in the Caribbean. French settlements lay north and west of the English colonies, on the Atlantic coast and inland along the St. Lawrence River. Land claims in the Mississippi River Valley. Native Americans controlled the land west of the 13 colonies, of which the French and British competed for the profitable fur trade.
1670s – tensions between the New England colonist and Wampanoag. o King Philip was the Wampanoag leader and opposed the colonists efforts to take his people’s lands. (King Philip’s War) o Colonial militia fought against American Indian warriors – 600 colonists and 3,000 Indians were killed. Some Native Americans allied with colonist to fight against King Philip. o Developed trade relations (tools, weapons, etc. for furs) French colonists traded and allied with the Algonquian and Huron. English colonists traded with the Iroquois League o American Indians often trust the French more than the English (why?).
France and Great Britain struggled for control of territory. o English colonists wanted to settle in the Ohio River valley to profit from the fur trade. Prime Location for trade – west of the Appalachian Mt. and south of the Great Lakes. o French worried this would harm their trade profits. o French had established military forts in the Ohio River valley (extending from Lake Erie to the Ohio River), so when the British moved into the area, fighting erupted in George Washington arrived with more soldiers and established Fort Necessity o After he lost many people (captured, killed, or injured) he surrendered in 1754 resulting in the French and Indian War (fought between who and who?). o Leaders from the colonies created a defense where they all came together (Albany Plan) – managed relations with the Native Americans.
In 1759, James Wolfe (British general) captured Quebec, gaining an advantage. It wasn’t until 1763 when Britain and France (and Spain) met to sign the Treaty of Paris officially ending the war. o Canada was given to Britain along with all French lands east of the Mississippi River (except New Orleans and two small islands) o 1762 Spain allied with France, so Britain received Florida o A change in balance of power in North America leading to British settlers moving west to settle in new lands.
Most colonial settlements up to this point were along the Atlantic but settlers began moving into the colonies and the Ohio River valley. o Chief Pontiac opposed British settlement in these new lands and Pontiac’s Rebellion began in 1763 when his forces attacked British forts. Destroyed/Captured 7 forts o To avoid more conflict, King George III issued the Proclamation of 1763: Banned British settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains Ordered settlers to leave the upper Ohio River valley.
You live in the New England colonies in the 1700s. Recently, British officials have placed new taxes on tea – your favorite beverage. You’ve never been very interested in politics, but you’re beginning to think that people far across the ocean in Britain shouldn’t be able to tell you what to do… British colonies were growing and becoming prosperous and the colonist were liking running their own lives. Officials in Britain still expected the colonies to obey them and to earn money for Britain. Parliament passed new laws and imposed new taxes – colonist challenged them.
Britain won the French and Indian War but had to pay for it. o Standing army to protect the colonist from Native attacks – Prime Minister George Greenville suggested colonist be taxed for it. Sugar Act 1764 Sugar Act: duties on molasses and sugar imported by colonists. o Arrest smugglers – merchants had to keep track of all their goods. Changing of the colonists’ legal system o Vice-admiralty courts: no juries, and judges treated smugglers as guilty until proven innocent. Colonists were very upset by Parliament’s actions o Taxes were unfair and hurt business – no right to tax them without popular consent. o Otis - Cannot “take from any man any part of his property, without his consent in person or by representation.” Colonists little influence in Parliament and no direct representatives.
Samuel Adams agreed with Otis – summed up in a slogan as “No Taxation without Representation”. o Founded the Committees of Correspondence: committees met with towns and colonies to share ideas and information about ways to challenge British laws. Protest methods o Boycott – people refused to buy British goods (hurt the British economy and might convince Parliament to end the new taxes).
British government continued to find ways to tax colonists o Stamp Act of 1765 o Stamp Act of 1765: required colonists to pay for an official stamp, or seal, when they bought paper items. Legal documents, licenses, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards. Refusal to pay = fined or sent to jail. Unexpected protest – similar taxes in England. Secret society (Sons of Liberty) – sometimes used violence to frighten tax collectors. Courts shut down because people refused to pay taxes on required legal documents Patrick Henry – resolutions stating the act’s violation of colonists rights (ended up being rather convincing). o No taxation without representation o Denied accused of trial by jury
In 1765, representatives from nine colonies met in New York to discuss the issues. London merchants complained that their trade suffered from the boycott Repealed in 1766! o Parliament was upset with the colonists’ challenge o Declaratory Act o Declaratory Act: Parliament has the power to create laws for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” o DUH DUH DUH…..
1767 Townshend Acts: duties on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. o Writs of assistance – allowed tax collectors to search for smuggled goods. o More power taken away from colonial governments. Boycotts ensued – including women (Daughters of Liberty) In some cases violence took place as colonists were angered by the actions tax collectors took. o Seizing of the merchant ship, Liberty, under suspicion of smuggling.
British soldiers “as foreign enemies” Samuel Adams Both sides resented each other Boston Massacre Boston Massacre: Argument between a lone British soldier and a colonists, which resulted with the soldiers firing into the crowd (that gathered) and ended up killing three men. o Story used as propaganda – gives only one side of an argument – against the British. o Soldiers and their officer were charged with murder (some argued they acted in self-defense) Found not guilty Trial helped to calm people down however some remained angry. Most of the Townshend Acts repealed (to reduce tensions) o Tax remained on tea (demand was high)
British East India Company had tea that they could not sell to the colonists directly. o Offered Parliament to allow them to sell it to the colonists at a lower price (less smuggling = more taxes) Tea Act Tea Act (1773): allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonies. When the British East India Company ships arrived in Boston Harbor, Sons of Liberty demanded that the ships leave… o December 16, 1773 colonists disguised as Indians sneaked onto the three tea-filled ships and dumped over 340 tea chests into Boston Harbor.
Parliament decided to punish Boston Coercive (Intolerable Acts) Coercive (Intolerable Acts) of 1774: o Boston Harbor closed until it paid for the ruined tea. o Massachusetts‘s charter was cancelled. o Royal officials accused of crimes were sent to England for trial – more friendly judge and jury. o Quartering Act o Quartering Act: colonists had to house soldiers. o Quebec Act o Quebec Act: large amounts of land given to Quebec. o General Thomas Gage became the new governor of Massachusetts. Hope that order would be brought back to the colonies… or did it?