3Sustainable Landscape Design Consider the function of each portion of the landscapeNote problems/attributes in the existing landscapeEvaluate the site characteristics, including soil type, pH, light, wind, etc.Decide on your goal and landscape style
4Garden DesignGarden DesignFormal = straight lines, plants in rows, symmetrical, globes and columnsInformal = curvilinear patterns, plants in intertwined masses, asymmetrical, natural plant forms
5Sustainable Landscape Design Locate gardens as part of your overall landscape designCreate a good turf area, with functional spaces and gardens behind the concept lines that form the turf shape
6Garden DesignConsider each individual viewpoint when designing the gardens and planting beds
7Sustainable Landscape Design The most beautifullandscapes are“designed”, notdecorated. Theycreate unity byincorporatingPrinciples ofDesign, including:
18Sustainable Landscape Design What makes it look good?Human eyes need a place to start:FOCAL POINTA focal point is the first thing we see when we look at a landscape.
19Sustainable Landscape Design Examples of things that create focal points are:ArtworkA plant that is different than those around itStructuresBirdbaths, birdhouses, birdfeedersBouldersBare spotsDiseased/dying plantsDebrisFOCAL POINTS CAN CHANGE THROUGHOUT THE SEASONS!
22Sustainable Landscape Design Locating Focal PointsAny given view of the landscape should have one major focal point, and maybe one or two secondary focal points. Too many focal points creates a “busy” landscape.Locate focal points 1/3 of the way from one side .
24Sustainable Landscape Design After our eyes find a focal point, they need to go somewhere, and look for lines to follow.Lines can be formed by edging, paths, structures, plant masses, plant form, shadows, etc.
30Sustainable Landscape Design Too many lines, or no lines, create a confusing, busy landscape.Lines should take the eye where you want it to go—and keep it in the landscape.Avoid lines that take the eye into the sky, or into the neighbor’s yard!
31Sustainable Landscape Design Before you start thinking about specific plant species, to get a good design, you must first plan for each plant’s characteristics, or “Elements of Design”
32Sustainable Landscape Design Elements of DesignPrimary (visual)Plant typePlant formPlant height/widthPlant TexturePlant Season of Interest(including color)
33Sustainable Landscape Design Consider both foliage form and flower formPlant Form:ArchingUprightCreeping/spreadingDrooping/weepingMoundedHorizontal branchingColumnar
34Sustainable Landscape Design Plant Size (height and width)Consider the plant’sMATURE, NATURALsize!
35Sustainable Landscape Design Plant textureVisual coarseness/fineness of foliage, branching, flowers.A plant’s texture is relative to what’s around it, and it may change throughout the season.Plant texture is EXTREMELY important in design, and can make or break a landscape
41Sustainable Landscape Design Season of InterestThis is how you get a landscape that is interesting all year—by planning it out on paper!For each plant, group or mass, think about when it will have significant interest, and make that work with what’s around it, creating focal points, repetition, unity.
50Sustainable Landscape Design Elements of DesignSecondary: Soil/fertility preferences(non-visual) Moisture requirementsLight requirementsHardinessDisease & Insect resistance
51Sustainable Landscape Design On a scale drawing, locate plants in slightly intertwined groups and masses, using single plants only when a focal point is desired.These groups and masses will help move the eye through the landscape.
52Sustainable Landscape Design Next, keeping in mind the Principles of Design (Balance, Scale, Variety, Emphasis, Simplicity, Sequence, Repetition), assign Elements of Design characteristics to each plant, plant group or plant mass.
53Sustainable Landscape Design “Key” plants soften a hard feature in the landscapeOn vertical corners or structures, they break the visual vertical line and keeps the eye in the landscapeThey soften large areas of hard surface, such as retaining walls or fences
55Sustainable Landscape Design “Accent” plants are a focal point—they draw attention to themselvesCould be all year, or only certain times, such as when in bloomAccent plants can be a single plant, a group, or a mass
59Sustainable Landscape Design “Mass” plants – when many plants of a particular species are planted close enough together so that you can’t see the individual plantsMasses serve to move the eye between more important components and to tie a landscape together
61Sustainable Landscape Design Start with a backdrop! Everything looks better with a backdrop! Create one if one doesn’t exist yet.Then, locate any non-plant focal points.Then, start with your biggest plant or your focal point plants. Using your available space as a guideline, your tallest plant should be 1/3 or 2/3 the height of the backdrop (unless the backdrop is more than feet tall).
63Flower Garden DesignHow big should your garden be?The width of a border planting should be 1/3 the width of the total area.Each “height” should have an equal amount of space within the bed.
64Sustainable Landscape Design In small areas where other rules don’t apply, a 4-8 foot wide border allows for an attractive variety of plants.
65Sustainable Landscape Design For island beds, be sure they fit into the overall concept plan.A good standard size is 8 feet wide, 15 feet long, with maximum plant height of 5 feet, but it should be in scale to the site!The tallest plant should be as tall as ½ the width of the bed.
66Garden DesignFor beds viewed from a distance, hold your hands out in front of you at shoulder width.Where your hands meet the backdrop is a good length for your flower bed.
70Intertwine plant groups to avoid lines that act as inadvertent focal points
71Sustainable Landscape Design Deciduous shrub, 6’ X6’, upright, medium texture, fall interestEvergreen shrub, 4” X 4’, mounded, coarse texture, winter interestDeciduous shrub, 2 ½ ’ X 5’, creeping, medium texture, spring interestOrnamental grass, 40” tall, upright, medium texture, fall interestHerbaceous perennial, 18” tall, mounded, fine texture, summer interest (red flowers)
72Sustainable Landscape Design Finally, choose specific plant species that match the assigned characteristics for each plant, group or mass.
73Sustainable Landscape Design MATCHING PLANTSEmerald Elf Amur MapleRegent ServiceberryGlossy Black ChokecherrySpreading CotoneasterBeach PlumCompact American CranberrybushEmerald Triumph ViburnumDiablo NinebarkDeciduous shrub, 6’ X6’, upright, medium texture, fall interest