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Principles of Design.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Design."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Design

2 Balance A. Stability of an arrangement
1. Arrangement appears secure and stable 2. Balance must be both visual and actual

3 Balance a. visual balance refers to the way an arrangement appears to the eye. B. visual balance is achieved by the proper use of plant materials according to size.

4 Balance C. visual weight refers to how heavy an object appears in an arrangement

5 Balance 1. Dark flowers appear heavier than light ones.
2. Flowers or objects of coarse texture appear heavier than those with a smooth texture.

6 Balance 3. Heavy flowers or objects need to be placed near the base of arrangements. Lighter ones are placed near the edges to give visual balance

7 Balance D. actual or mechanical balance achieved by proper placement of flowers. E. equal amounts of weight on both sides of the central axis of the arrangement.

8 Balance F. If mechanical balance is not achieved, the arrangement may topple.

9 Balance 3. Symmetrical and Asymmetrical balance are commonly used.

10 Balance Symmetrical or formal- equal visual weight on each side of an imaginary, central, vertical line.

11 Balance 1. Equal visual weight does not have to be expressed by identical materials. The materials are usually very similar.

12 Balance 2. More traditional types of arrangements are based on this type of balance.

13 Balance 3. Symmetrical arrangements should be displayed against a symmetrical background.

14 Balance 4. Arrangements placed on the altar and at the head table at a banquet are usually symmetrically balanced.

15 Balance B. Asymmetrical or informal arrangements- equal visual weight on both sides of the central axis, but each side is different in plant materials and the arrangement.

16 Balance C. Japanese styles of arranging are based on asymmetrical balance. D. Asymmetrical balance suggests movement to the eye.

17 Proportion Most arrangements are designed for a particular location such as a dining table.

18 Proportion The size of the table and the colors in the room will determine the flowers used the size and shape of the arrangement, and the container chosen. This relationship is known as proportion.

19 Proportion The interrelationship of all parts of an arrangement.
1. Plant materials should be 1 1/2 times as high as the height of the container or 1 1/2 the width of a low container. (minimum dimensions)

20 Proportion 2. Maximum dimensions depend on the background space and the weight of the material to be used.

21 Proportion A. If the materials to be used are light and airy, the arrangement may be 2 to 3 times or more the height of the container.

22 Proportion B. containers made of sturdy materials and dark colors can hold much larger arrangements. C. Choose flowers that fit with the size and character of the container.

23 Proportion 3. Scale refers to the relationship between an arrangement and the area in which it is to be displayed.

24 Focal Point Attracts and holds the attention of the viewer.
1. Also called the center of interest 2. Located near the place where the stems or lines appear to meet. 3. Balance requires that the center of interest be near the design base

25 Focal Point 4. There should be only a single focal point in a design.
A. arrangements with more than one create restless movement of the eye. 1. Unity in the arrangement is destroyed.

26 Focal Point 5. Suggestions for creating a focal point:
Bring the main lines of the design to the point. Place the largest flower there Concentrate the plant material in that area

27 Focal Point More suggestions for creating a focal point:
Place the darkest color or the brightest color there

28 Focal Point Place strongly contrasting colors or textures at this point Place an unusually shaped flower there

29 Emphasis A. Closely related to focal point. Focuses the attention on one feature and keeps everything else secondary. B. Can be created by texture, color, and kind of flower and movement.

30 Emphasis C. In a finished arrangement, different kinds of flowers, foliage and colors compete for dominance and the arrangement loses its interest.

31 Emphasis 1. Uses a predominance of one color, texture, line or kind of flower and complement this with small amounts of other colors and flowers. 2. Maintaining dominance of one type of material, the finished design is more pleasing

32 Rhythm A. Movement of the eye through a design toward or away from the center of interest. 1. Flow of lines, textures, and colors that evokes a sense of motion.

33 Rhythm 2. Created by repetition, radiation, progression and transition.

34 Rhythm Repetition 1. Simplest way to develop rhythm in an arrangement.
2. Accomplished by repeating the leading color, strongest line, the dominant form or texture.

35 Rhythm 3. Select a flower of the desired color and repeat the use of the flower throughout the arrangement.

36 Rhythm Radiation 1. The attempt to make all stems appear to come from one central axis.

37 Rhythm D. Progression 1. Gradual change by increasing or decreasing one or more qualities. Such as size, color to texture of the material used, or space between flowers.

38 Rhythm 2. Progression develops movement in a certain direction.
3. Using flowers of increasing size. Large flowers at the bottom and center, buds and small flowers near the edge, medium between them.

39 Rhythm 4. Increase the space between flowers at the edges and decreasing at the center.

40 Rhythm 5. Progression in texture is achieved through using fine textured materials at the edge and working in with more coarse textured material.

41 Rhythm 6. Progression in color is accomplished by using flowers of light value at the edges and top and moving in with darker values.

42 Transition 1. Making a gradual change
2. Blending colors, line patterns and textures 3. Progression and transition are closely related and progression is often used to create a transition.

43 Transition 4. Don’t section the design- use of one color or texture in one area and different in another. 5. Blend colors, textures and shapes together to unify the design.

44 Transition 6. Transition should also exist between the container and the arrangement. Allow some plant material to over hang the rim. This allows the eye to move easily from the container to the arrangement.

45 Harmony A. Blending of all components of the design.
B. A pleasing relationship within the design in color, texture, shape, size, and line.

46 Unity A. When all the parts of the design suggest a single idea or impression. B. Repeating colors throughout the design.

47 Unity C. Establish a focal point and a dominant flower in the arrangement. D. Do not create horizontal layer of colors or textures.

48 Design Elements The visual qualities of a composition.

49 A. Line 1. Provides a visual path for the eye to follow.
2. Framework that holds the entire arrangement together.

50 Design Elements 3. Create line by using linear materials such as stems, branches, or line flowers. 4. The lines of a design must never be broken.

51 Design Elements 5. Lines should appear to originate from one point.

52 Design Elements B. Form 1. Shape of silhouette of an arrangement.

53 Texture surface appearance of flowers, foliage, container and accessories, such as ribbons and balloons.

54 Design Elements 2. Generally designated as fine, medium, or coarse.
3. Fine textures and smooth, shiny surfaces give the appearance of formality or elegance. 4. Coarse textures and rough, dull surfaces are more informal and casual.

55 Design Elements D. Color
1. Single most important element of floral design. 2. Necessary to understand a few basic principles to make effective use of color.

56 Design Elements the color wheel is made up of 12 colors

57 Design Elements a. six colors make up the visible light spectrum called primary and secondary colors

58 Design Elements Intermediate or tertiary colors are created when primary colors are mixed in equal amounts with an adjacent secondary color.

59 Secondary colors also called hues

60 Design Elements C. Primary colors - blue, yellow, and red cannot be made by mixing any other combinations of colors.

61 Design Elements D. Secondary colors are composed by mixing two primary colors.

62 Design Elements E. Chroma is a measure of brightness or dullness and is determined by the amount of pigment in the flower.

63 Design Elements 1. Pigments are minerals or other chemicals that reflect light in specific ways so that we see color.

64 Design Elements f. Value is how light or dark a color is. Colors are lightened by the addition of white, muted by gray, and darkened by adding black.

65 Design Elements 1. Add white to a color to create a tint, gray for a tone, black for a shade.

66 Design Element 2. Lighter tints and tones should be used in greater amounts than darker ones.

67 Design Element In an arrangement containing three colors 65% should be of the lightest value, 25% in the mid range and 10% darkest value.

68 Design Elements 3. Color harmonies - combination of colors that are pleasing to the eye. Grouping different hues or combining tints, tones and shades of a single hue.

69 Design Elements 4. Monochromatic - consists of a single hue and its variations in tint, tone and shade

70 Design Elements 5. Analogous harmony - using three or more hues which occur next to each other on the color wheel. One should be a primary color.

71 Design Elements 6. Complementary - any two colors opposite each other on the color wheel

72 Design Elements 7. Split complimentary - uses one color and the colors on either side of compliment of the original color.

73 Design Elements 8. Triadic - three colors equally spaced on the wheel.

74 Design Elements 9. Polychromatic - three or more unrelated colors.

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