Presentation on theme: "1 3.05 The Elements of Planting Design Plant Applications."— Presentation transcript:
The Elements of Planting Design Plant Applications
2 Trees When selecting a tree, consider these uses: Shade Enframement Screening
3 Shade The stronger-branched varieties may be planted closer to an architectural structure without fear of breakage. Fast-growing, weaker- branched trees should never be planted too near a structure because of possible damage during severe ice or windstorms.
4 Enframement Some varieties of trees may also provide enframement (the framing of a view) for the approach to a structure. These plants should be placed just off the front corners or to the sides to give the lawn or architectural feature of a specific accent.
5 Screening Trees are useful for screening out undesirable views. When used in natural-growing clumps, they become objects of beauty in color for form and draw attention away from undesirable objects. They may also provide protection from summer or winter winds. Dense plantings of deciduous trees and perhaps some evergreen varieties are also effective barriers to harsh environmental elements.
6 Shrubs Shrubs provide a different spatial scale. When selecting a shrub, consider these uses: Enframement Screening Accent
7 Enframement A shrub can provide the framing component to a special view into or away from a landscape space. Place the shrub on either side of the intended accent and frame it as if it were a picture.
8 Screening Large shrubs can screen undesirable views or provide a visual corridor into a landscape space. The object of the “screen” is to obstruct a view from one area into another. A small or medium shrub can also act as a screen if combined with a landform or construction feature. Screening Large shrubs can screen undesirable views or provide a visual corridor into a landscape space. The object of the “screen” is to obstruct a view from one area into another. A small or medium shrub can also act as a screen if combined with a landform or construction feature.
9 Accent Shrubs are very often used as accent features within a landscape space. Too many accents, or one that is too strong, will confuse the viewer and create disharmony within the composition. Groundcovers The term groundcover refers primarily to plant materials under eighteen inches in height, of spreading or creeping habit, that are used to hide unsightly areas of exposed ground.
10 There are two functional classes of groundcovers. The first is the lawn substitute, used to cover a large expanse of ground and give the general appearance of a lawn. The second class is the ornamental groundcover. These are used to decorate walks with borders, cover the ground where grass will not grow, and add beauty and accent to shrub masses.
11 A vine can be a groundcover growing on a mechanical structure. When combined with a trellis, decorative fence, or wire frame, this plant element can be used where space is limited or as a copy, baffle, screen or barrier. Vines climb in very specific patterns, and each pattern should be understood before it is used in an environment.
12 Vines climb in the following ways: Twining - a vertical, twisting growth pattern as plants grasp small posts or other plants. Clinging - a habit of growth that allows the plant to adhere to flat surfaces.
13 Flower and Foliage Colors Flowering materials add interest to any planting design and care should be taken in their selection. Use flowering plants together to extend the blooming season and to maintain the visual appearance of the total composition. Flower and Foliage Colors Flowering materials add interest to any planting design and care should be taken in their selection. Use flowering plants together to extend the blooming season and to maintain the visual appearance of the total composition.
14 Location Considerations Proper planning of each location will allow many years of trouble-free maintenance. Here are some locations that should be avoided whenever possible:
15 Do not plant trees closer than four to five feet form drives or walks. As they grow to maturity, the root system may cause cracks and separations in the paving elements.
16 Do not plant trees or large shrubs under overhead wires. Utility companies have the right to prune the branches without the owner’s permission (in most cases) and the results may not meet your design objectives.
17 Do not plant weak, fast-growing trees closer than thirty to forty feet from a structure. These trees are easily damaged by winds and ice storms, and the branches may fall and cause damage.
18 Do not over plant. A few good specimens in a mass arrangement are better than a large number of overcrowded, single-species arrangements.
19 Do not plant trees or large shrubs closer than one to one and one-half times their spread from sewer, water, or septic lines.
20 Do not plant trees or large shrubs too close to windows or doors or directly in front of a structure. If you do, you may hide attractive architectural characteristics.
21 Planting Suggestions Follow these general rules in order to reach the optimum growing conditions:
22 Select a location where a plant has enough room to reach maturity. Crowding plants may cause excessive competition for light, soil nutrients, and growing space. When planting, use the measurements of the mature spread of plants to determine location.
23 Choose the time of planting carefully. Some deciduous trees are best planted while dormant. Most evergreen materials can be planted during any season as long as care is taken to maintain a soil ball around the root system.
24 Excavate a generous planting pit and add soil amendments as required by the geographic area. If the soil is too heavy or too sandy, it will benefit from a healthy addition of organic matter such as peat or humus. Plant as soon as the material is purchased from the nursery or collected from the field. Waiting too long may increase the “shock” a plant encounter when being moved.
25 Trees more than two inches in caliper (diameter) should be supported with guy wires. This allows the growing position to be corrected as the soil around the root system settles.
26 Environmental Insulation Insulation is now recognized as the essential link in the chain of comprehensive energy conservation, and the unique character of the insulation becomes the most important factor in the establishment of a desirable living environment.
27 Street Plantings Categories should be developed to relate to the degree of existing vegetation. Unwooded street : vegetation exists on less than 30% of the project area. Semi-wooded street: vegetation exists on more than 60%, but less than 80%, of the project area. Wooded street: vegetation exists on more than 80% of the project area.
28 From the inventory, functional categories (based on growth habits) can then be applies to project needs: Overhead zone materials are the major covering components; they have large, dense crowns of foliage and are used to provide greater visual impact into and within the project area. Intermediate zone materials are eye-level plantings of screens and baffles that are used to define the spaces on either side of the street core. Ground zone materials are small shrubs and groundcovers used to accent the ground spaces and to identify and control pedestrian areas within the development.
29 Wildlife Habitats Animals, like people, seek a landscaped environment for very special reasons. People often search for the solitude of space to rest from the complications of the day. Animals, on the other hand, need from the space the three essentials for their survival: food, shelter, and protection from predators.