Presentation on theme: "Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Reconstruction (1865-1877) The effort to rebuild the southern states and restore the Union was known as Reconstruction,"— Presentation transcript:
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Reconstruction (1865-1877) The effort to rebuild the southern states and restore the Union was known as Reconstruction, a period that lasted from 1865 to 1877. Reconstruction required the rebuilding of the nation's economy as well as its government. With so much at stake, rival political factions— with competing plans for the future—waged bitter battles in Washington.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Several different plans for Reconstruction emerged during and after the war. Much debate about differing plans centered on who would control Reconstruction—the President or Congress. Plans for Reconstruction
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction President Lincoln had begun planning for the restoration of the South long before the end of the war. His plan of Reconstruction was based on the idea that the southern states had never left the Union. It featured the following elements: Lincoln’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Pardons to southerners who swore oaths of loyalty to the United States Recognition of new southern state governments when 10 percent of those who had voted in the 1860 election took these oaths and when the states adopted new constitutions abolishing slavery. Lincoln was open to suggestions from Congress for changes in his plan, but his assassination in April 1865 meant he would never carry out his program. Lincoln’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Lincoln’s plan Johnson’s plan Denied pardons to officers and anyone who had killed African American war prisoners. Permitted each state to create a new constitution after 10 percent of voters took an oath of allegiance. Offered pardons to Southerners who swore allegiance. States could then hold elections and rejoin the Union. Each state could create a new constitution without Lincoln’s 10 percent allegiance requirement. States had to void secession, abolish slavery, and repudiate the Confederate debt. Although it officially denied pardons to all Confederate leaders, Johnson often issued pardons to those who asked him personally. Reconstruction Plans Chapter 12, Section 1
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Vice President Andrew Johnson became President after Lincoln's death. He intended to follow the broad outlines of Lincoln's s plan. Johnson recognized four southern state governments and prepared to readmit the others. Johnson’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction A group called the Radical Republicans felt that the Civil War had been fought over the moral issue of slavery. The Radicals insisted that the main goal of Reconstruction should be a restructuring of society to guarantee black people true equality. The Radical Republicans controlled Congress, and they wanted harsher terms for Reconstruction. Johnson’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Johnson's failure to consider congressional views on Reconstruction and his efforts to block radical plans finally led Republicans in Congress to attempt to impeach him. Johnson’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction In 1868, the House charged the President with "high crimes and misdemeanors"—specifically, for violating the Tenure of Office Act. The Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds vote required by the Constitution to remove a President from office. Although Johnson was acquitted, his political power was gone. Johnson’s Plan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The Tenure of Office Act permitted the President to suspend an officer while the Senate was not in session--at that time, Congress sat during a relatively small portion of the year. If, when the Senate reconvened, it declined to ratify the removal, the President would be required to reinstate the official. Tenure of Office Act
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction In August 1867, President Andrew Johnson suspended Secretary of War Edwin Stanton pending the next session of the Senate. However, when the Senate convened on January 3, 1868, it refused to ratify the removal by a vote of 35-16. Notwithstanding the vote, President Johnson attempted to appoint a new Secretary of War. Tenure of Office Act
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Now the Republican-controlled Congress dictated the terms of Reconstruction. The chief features of this so-called Radical Reconstruction included: The division of the South into five military districts controlled by the U.S. Army, while new state constitutions and governments were being set up. The requirement of the new state governments to grant African American males the right to vote. Radical Reconstruction
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The requirement of southern states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment (African-Americans are citizens. In addition to addressing several fundamental civil rights issues, the amendment prohibited many former Confederate government officials from holding office. Radical Reconstruction
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Immediately after the Civil War ended, white southerners who had served in leadership positions before and during the Civil War tried to reassert their control of state and local governments. They were especially concerned with limiting the freedom and movement of the former slaves. State Governments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction When the radical plan of Reconstruction took effect, most of the former Confederate leaders—largely Democrats—were barred from holding office and voting. Republicans headed the new state governments that emerged and they were overwhelmingly supported by African Americans, who had recently won the right to vote. In many cases, African Americans themselves won election to office. State Governments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Many white southerners deeply resented the federal government's imposition of Radical Reconstruction. They also resented the new Reconstruction governments and the role of African Americans in them. They branded the few white southerners active in those governments as scalawags and the Republican northerners who came South to take part in Reconstruction as carpetbaggers. State Governments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction White southerners sometimes used terror and violence in efforts to keep African Americans from taking part in government. State Governments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction During the Reconstruction period, the states ratified three amendments to the Constitution: Thirteenth Amendment (1865)—abolished slavery in the United States. New Constitutional Amendments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Fourteenth Amendment (1868)—(1) declared that all native-born or naturalized people, including African Americans, were citizens; (2) forbade states to make laws that "abridge the privileges... of citizens" or that "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law" or that "deny to any person... the equal protection of the laws"; New Constitutional Amendments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction (3) limited the rights of former Confederate officers and government officials; and (4) promised to pay Civil War debts owed by the federal government, but declared Confederate debts to be void Fifteenth Amendment (Right to vote for African-Americans) (1870)—declared that states could not keep citizens from voting because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (slavery) New Constitutional Amendments
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction
The Klan sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters. They wanted to keep African Americans as submissive laborers. They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them. Prosperous African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims. Ku Klux Klan
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction A family farmed a portion of a planter’s land. As payment, the family was promised a share of the crop at harvest time. After the harvest, some planters evicted the sharecroppers without pay or charged the sharecroppers for housing and other expenses, so that the sharecroppers were in debt at the end of the year. Many sharecropping families were in debt to the planters and trapped on the plantation. Farming in the South
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Sharecropping and the Cycle of Debt 1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land. 2. Poor whites and freedmen sign contracts to work a landlord’s acreage in exchange for a part of the crop. 3. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing and food. 4. At harvest time, the sharecropper owes more to the landlord than his share of the crop is worth. 5. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Tenant farmers did not own the land they farmed. The tenant farmer paid to rent the land and chose which crops to plant and how much to work. Tenant farming created a class of wealthy merchants who sold supplies on credit. Sharecropping and tenant farming encouraged planters to grow cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane. The South had to import much of its food. Farming in the South
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The first presidential election after the end of the Civil War took place in 1868. Union war hero General Ulysses S. Grant ran as a Republican and won. Grant's strengths, however, were those of a military leader, not those of a politician or government leader. Scandals and corruption damaged Grant's administration, as business owners in the booming postwar economy offered bribes to politicians who would do favors for them. President Grant
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Among the most notorious scandals were: Credit Mobilier Scandal: Railroad officials impoverished the railroad, then bribed members of Congress to block any investigation. "Salary Grab ": Congress voted itself a 50 percent pay raise and added two years of "back pay." Public outcry forced repeal of this act. "Whiskey Ring ": Whiskey distillers paid graft to federal tax collectors rather than pay tax on their liquor. President Grant
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Political corruption was also common at state and local levels. Perhaps the most notorious figure was William "Boss" Tweed, who ran the Tammany Hall political machine in New York City in the 1860s and 1870s. The artist Thomas Nast attacked Tweed's behavior in a series of stinging cartoons that helped turn public opinion against Tweed. President Grant
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Tammany Hall Ring by Thomas Nast
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction End of Reconstruction Corruption in the Grant administration weakened the political strength of the Republican party. In addition, by the early 1870s, all but a handful of former Confederates could vote again. Most of these white southern males now voted Democratic in reaction to Radical Republican Reconstruction. For most of the next century, the Democratic party would dominate voting in the South, giving rise to the term solid South.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction End of Reconstruction While nearly dying out in the South, the Republican party remained strong in the North and Midwest. It focused on issues of interest to businessmen and farmers, such as keeping the money supply tight and tariffs on imports high.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction There were four main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction. Corruption: Reconstruction legislatures and Grant’s administration came to symbolize corruption, greed, and poor government. The economy: Reconstruction legislatures taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt. Why did Reconstruction end?
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments. The Democrats’ return to power: The pardoned ex-Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South. They blocked Reconstruction policies. Why did Reconstruction end?
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Successes and Failures of Reconstruction SuccessesFailures Union is restored.Many white southerners remain bitter toward the federal government and the Republican Party. The South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North. The South is slow to industrialize. Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments guarantee African Americans the rights of citizenship, equal protection under the law, and suffrage. After federal troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny African Americans the right to vote. Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling. Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty. Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education. Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The emergence of the solid South gave the Democrats greater power in politics at the national level. In 1876, Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden, the governor of New York, to run for President against Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, the governor of Ohio.. Tilden clearly won the popular vote, but the electoral vote was contested. Four states sent in disputed election returns. Which votes were counted would determine the outcome of the election. Election of 1876
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction A special electoral commission was named to count the votes. The Republican majority on the commission gave all the electoral votes in question to Hayes, thus guaranteeing his victory. In the Compromise of 1877, Democrats agreed to go along with the commission's decision in return for promises by Hayes to: Withdraw remaining federal troops from the South, thus ending Reconstruction Name a southerner to his cabinet Election of 1876
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Support federal spending on internal improvements in the South. The Compromise of 1877 effectively weakened the North's political victory in the Civil War, restoring to power many of the southern families who, 16 years before, had formed the Confederacy and led it into war. Election of 1876
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The withdrawal of federal troops enabled white southerners to eliminate any political advances African Americans had made during Reconstruction. Various methods were used to curb the rights of African Americans, and by 1900, their civil rights had been sharply limited. White Control of the South
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction These measures, passed in most southern states immediately after the Civil War, were based on old slave codes and aimed at keeping blacks in conditions close to slavery. The black codes produced an angry reaction in the North that helped passage of the Radical Reconstruction program. These codes gave slave-owners absolute power over the African slaves. Black Codes
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction White southerners originally formed groups like the Ku Klux Klan to try to frighten African Americans and their supporters out of taking part in Reconstruction governments. The lawlessness and brutality demonstrated by these groups led the federal government to use the army against the societies. Secret Societies
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction With the end of Reconstruction and the growth of white political power, the Klan and other similar groups played a less active role in the South. Such organizations, however, remain in existence to this day. Secret Societies
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Southern states imposed a tax on every voter. Those who were too poor to pay poll taxes— including many African Americans—could not vote. Poll Tax
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Some states required citizens to demonstrate that they could read and write before they voted. Often literacy tests involved interpreting a difficult part of the Constitution. Few African Americans could pass these tests because they had received little schooling. Literacy Tests
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction While the Freedmen's Bureau, created by Congress in 1865 to aid former slaves, established many schools for young African Americans, the bureau lasted only a few years. Thereafter, state laws forced African American children to attend separate schools that were poorly equipped and funded. Literacy Tests
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Poll taxes and literacy tests might have also kept poor and uneducated whites from voting. To prevent this, southern states added grandfather clauses to their constitutions. These clauses allowed the son or grandson of a man eligible to vote in 1866 or 1867 to vote himself even if he could neither pay the tax nor pass the test. Since few African Americans could vote in 1867, the clause benefited whites almost exclusively. Grandfather Clauses
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Southern states also passed laws establishing social segregation, or the separation of people on the basis of race. Such Jim Crow laws forbade African Americans from sharing facilities with whites, such as railroad cars or water fountains. Jim Crow Laws
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction
The Supreme Court’s Response The Supreme Court did not interfere with efforts to restore white control in the South. In the 1883 Civil Rights Cases, the Court ruled that the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery but did not prohibit discrimination and that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited discrimination by government but not by individuals.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The Supreme Court’s Response Later, in the landmark case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as African Americans had access to "equal but separate" facilities. The Court's ruling in the Plessy case set a precedent that justified segregation in all public facilities—schools, hospitals, passenger terminals, and more—until the 1950s.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction The Supreme Court’s Response It was not until the pivotal case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) that the Supreme Court reversed the finding in Plessy v. Ferguson. The Brown decision stated that educational facilities separated solely on the basis of race were by their nature unequal.
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction Two prominent leaders offered contrasting, strategies to improve the lives of African Americans. Booker T. Washington argued that African Americans should temporarily put aside their desire for political equality and instead focus on building economic security by gaining useful vocational skills. African Americans Debate Their Future
Mrs. FentonU.S. History: Reconstruction W.E.B. Du Bois called for the brightest African Americans to gain an advanced liberal arts education (rather than a vocational education) and then demand social and political equality. However, widespread discrimination against African Americans made either strategy difficult to follow. African Americans Debate Their Future