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Chapter 12 Sections 3 and 4 The New South and the End of Reconstruction.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12 Sections 3 and 4 The New South and the End of Reconstruction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12 Sections 3 and 4 The New South and the End of Reconstruction

2 Why did planters have trouble finding people to work for them? The work too closely resembled slavery Workers often left to look for better jobs and more money

3 Sharecropping A family would farm some portion of a planter’s land A payment, the family would receive a portion of the crops The planter would usually provide a place to live

4 Sharecropping Harsh life Could be evicted after a harvest Were often charged rent, leaving them in debt Could not leave plantation until debt paid – Left them stuck

5 Tenant Farming Did not own the land they farmed Paid to rent the land Could choose what crops to grow Enjoyed a higher social status than sharecroppers

6 How did sharecroppers and tenant farming differ? Tenant farmers had a little more freedom – Could choose what plants to grow – What hours to work Sharecroppers farmed someone else’s land in exchange for a portion of the crop at harvest and for housing…sometimes

7 How did changes in farming affect the long term health of the South’s economy? Too make money, Southern planters had to grow cash crops (like cotton) rather than food crops This required the South to import more food This created more expenses for Southerners in poverty

8 Infrastructure The public property and services a society uses – This was almost completely destroyed in the south – Left opportunities for business opportunities – South used Reconstruction money to build: roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines, public schools

9 How did railroads contribute to the growth of cities? Railroads rebuilt and extended in the south – Towns and villages along the railroad turned into cities – Trade and business flourished – More commerce and larger populations

10 Why was southern industrial growth limited? Southern factories often did not make finished goods-focused on the early stages of manufacturing Profits from the cotton industries shifted to the North Northern companies that dyed the cotton and sold the finished product made the money

11 What were the sources of funding for Reconstruction programs? Congress Private investors Heavy taxes

12 Enforcement Act of 1870 Banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race. Meant to stop the actions of the KKK

13 Why did Congress pass the Enforcement Act of 1870? KKK spreading terror throughout the South Desired to eliminate the Republican party Desired to keep African Americans in a submissive role in society Tortured, kidnapped, and murdered

14 Solid South A strong bloc of former Confederate and Democratic voters in the South Blocked many federal Reconstruction policies Reversed many Reconstruction reforms

15 Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes lost the popular vote in the 1876 Presidential election to Samuel Tilden But, the electoral results were disputed Both candidates were claiming victory in Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida

16 Compromise of 1877 A Congressional commission was set up to resolve the problem – Composed of more republicans than Democrats – Democrats rejected the commissions decision

17 Compromise of 1877 The 2 parties made a deal Hayes would win the Presidency In exchange for the Presidency, he would pull the troops out of the South and give money to projects in the South Democrats regain control of Southern politics Reconstruction over

18 What 4 factors contributed to the end of Reconstruction? Corruption- poor government leadership The economy- lots of taxes and spending led to deep Southern debt Violence The Democratic return to power in the South

19 What were the successes and failures of Reconstruction? Successes Union is restored South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North 14 th and 15 th Amendments offer blacks citizenship and equal protection under the law Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education

20 What were the successes and failures of Reconstruction? Failures Many white southerners remain bitter toward the federal government and the Republican Party The South is sow to industrialize After troops leave, many blacks are denied their right to vote Many black and white farmers remain caught in a cycle of poverty Racism continues in the North and South

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