Presentation on theme: "(23 Note Cards Required) SSUSH10The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. SSUSH11 The student will describe."— Presentation transcript:
(23 Note Cards Required) SSUSH10The student will identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction. SSUSH11 The student will describe the growth of big business and technological innovations after Reconstruction. SSUSH12The student will analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
Reconstruction The purpose was to re-admit the southern states back into the Union.
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction South shouldn't be treated harshly. Any southerner that took a loyalty oath would be pardoned. 10 % Plan- If 10 % of the voters in the 1860 election took a loyalty oath then the state would be readmitted to the union.
Andrew Johnson A southerner and one-time slave owner who had remained loyal to the Union and became president after Lincoln was assassinated. He proved sympathetic to the South and pursued his own plan of Presidential Reconstruction.
Presidential Reconstruction (Johnson’s Plan) It was less severe than Radical Reconstruction and only required that southerners swear allegiance to the Union and that States had to denounce their secession and ratify the 13th Amendment. Once done, confederate states could re-enter the Union. Presidential Reconstruction allowed power to remain in the hands of many of the same people who had led the confederacy during the Civil War.
Radical Republicans Plan for Reconstruction The southern states were put under military rule. African-Americans were allowed to vote. Southern states had to ratify the 14 th Amendment (approve), which made African Americans citizens of each state as well as the nation.
Freedman's Bureau of 1866 As the first federal relief agency in US history, the Freedmen's Bureau provided: Clothes Medical attention Food Education And land Lacking support, it eventually ended in 1869. However, during its brief time, it helped many slaves transition to freedom throughout the South.
Impeachment of Andrew Johnson The impeachment was led by a fiery Radical Republican congressman named Thaddeus Stevens and brought to a head the conflict between Congress and the president over Reconstruction. The Senate voted to spare Johnson's presidency by just one vote.
13th Amendment Constitutional amendment that ended slavery throughout the United States.
14th Amendment Constitutional amendment that made freed African Americans citizens of the states in which they lived as well as citizens of the United States.
15th Amendment Granted the right to vote to all male U.S. citizens over the age of 21 and removed restrictions on voting based on race.
Post-War African American Education Often with the help of the Freedmen's Bureau and/or churches, the southern African-American community established the first black schools. African-American soldiers who had received some education during the war often served as teachers. Students included both children and adults. Some people also tried to provide blacks with advanced education.
Morehouse College College founded in 1867 to train African American men to be ministers and/or teachers. The school eventually became Atlanta Baptist Seminary and, later, Atlanta Baptist College. Finally, in 1913, the institution changed its name to Morehouse College and has traditionally been one of the most prestigious African American colleges in the nation. Nicknamed, “The Black Harvard”
Role of African American Churches African-American churches became the centers for African-American social and political life. Within these churches, African-Americans could discuss issues relevant to the black community and organize strategies to meet the needs of freed blacks.
Sharecropping Under this practice a family farmed a portion of a white landlord’s property in exchange for housing and a portion of the crop.
Tenant Farming Paid rent to a landowner to farm the land and kept the crop.
Role of African Americans in Politics During Reconstruction Reconstruction allowed African Americans access to the political process. Some 600 African-Americans served in southern state legislatures, a few were elected to offices as high as lieutenant-governor, and one even served as acting governor of Louisiana when the white governor was charged with corruption. On a national level, a few blacks represented southern states in Congress.
Carpetbaggers Deceitful Northern politicians that went down south and tried to obtain black votes for their own power and profit.
Scalawags Southerners who cooperated with African Americans and carpetbaggers.
Black Codes Laws written to control the lives of freed slaves in ways slaveholders had formerly controlled the lives of their slaves. Black Codes deprived voting rights to freed slaves.
The Ku Klux Klan A secretive organization whose members often used violence, murder, and threats to intimidate blacks and those who favored giving African Americans equal rights and the opportunity to vote. Founded by veterans of the Confederate Army.
Jim Crow Laws Laws passed in the South after Reconstruction that required blacks and whites to use separate public facilities.
Literacy Tests Tests designed to keep blacks from voting by requiring predominantly uneducated African Americans to prove they could read and write before allowing them to vote. They were designed to disfranchise educated blacks as well by asking questions most people, white and black, could not answer.
Poll Taxes Special taxes passed in the South after Reconstruction to prevent blacks from voting by requiring them to pay money to vote.
Grandfather Clause Laws designed to help poor and less educated whites still vote by exempting them from literacy tests and poll taxes if their ancestors had voted or served in the Confederate military.
Rutherford B. Hayes Reconstruction ended in 1877 during his presidency.