Presentation on theme: "Seven Best Practices for Managing All Types of Behavior How to enjoy teaching again!"— Presentation transcript:
Seven Best Practices for Managing All Types of Behavior How to enjoy teaching again!
Seven Essential Strategies for Managing Behaviors Supervision Explicit Teaching of Behaviors High Levels of Structure and Clarity Function Based Interventions Differential Reinforcement Judicious Use of Response Cost and/or Time-Out Monitoring Verbal Interactions
How to Provide Active Supervision Greet all students at the door Watch and interact with students in the hallway near your classroom, while visually monitoring the students in your classroom (during transitions) Continually scan all students while you are teaching Move around the classroom as much as possible
How to Provide Active Supervision Be aware when students are attempting to be private or covert (talking quietly, exchanging notes, non-verbal signals, etc.) Give high levels of feedback, especially praise, to students throughout class time Use all your senses to aid in supervision- train yourself to both listen to and watch your students Provide for high levels of response and engagement in class
Explicitly Teaching Expected Behavior In the beginning, ACTIVELY teach the rules: Explain why the rule is important Demonstrate the rule (examples and non-examples) Have students rehearse the rule Repeat regularly during the first 2-3 weeks of school NEVER assume that students will learn and remember the rules if you just tell them-they need active and repeated practice. DURING the year, re-teach rules as needed-after breaks, when new students enter, when behavior problems seem to increase.
Explicitly Teaching Expected Behavior Do not assume that students know what you mean when you say things like “Line up.”, “Listen.”, “Take notes.” or “Go to time-out.” These behaviors must be broken down into steps and TAUGHT before they are needed. For young children, pictures and visual cues can help teach behaviors.
High Levels of Structure and Clarity Rules (clear, limited, universal) Procedures (explicitly taught) Reminders (regularly given) Organization (district, campus, classroom, individual) Consistency (Universal design) A sampling of students queried should be able to describe rules and procedures and consequences for not following them.
Function Based Interventions Behavior has a function-2 categories-to get something or to avoid something Attention from teacher Attention from peers Attention from other adults Power or control Status To avoid work or some activity To avoid class or other situations or people
Interventions Based on Functions First, determine the function of the problem behavior (Example-Johnny falls out of his desk in class to make his friends laugh- attention from peers.) Next, determine another way for Johnny to get his peers’ attention that is acceptable (Example- When Johnny goes for 2 days without falling out of his desk, he is allowed to stand and tell a joke to the class.)
Differential Reinforcement Most powerful Least Aversive Easiest to Use Most Evidence Based Helps Increase Desired Behaviors Reduces or Eliminates Challenging Behaviors
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible (DRI) or Alternative Behaviors (DRA) Reduce specific, unacceptable behaviors by reinforcing appropriate alternative or replacement behaviors Can b applied to groups or individuals
Examples of DRI/DRA BehaviorTarget Behavior to Reinforce Touching walls while walking down hall Walking with hands clasped behind back, or Hips and Lips Pushing while in lineStanding one tile block apart, hands at sides, or standing on feet markings on the floor Rude comments or put- downs Saying nice or helpful comments, giving compliments or “put-ups” Fiddling with other materials on desk instead of working Leaving materials off desk in designated place-having only needed materials out
Differential Reinforcement of Communicative Behavior Use like DRI/DRA Reinforces communicative behaviors, such as: Expressing emotions using words Using signs or pictures to make requests Asking for “time out” or chill breaks rather than escalating Asking for what is needed, such as materials or help Using assistive communication devices to request breaks, make choices
Examples of DRC BehaviorDRC Intervention to be Reinforced Refusal to workAsk for break ComplainingNegotiate Grabbing ItemsAsk permission to use Losing temper and hittingUsing words to tell others about anger
Differential reinforcement of Zero Levels of Behavior (DRO) Reinforce for periods of time during which the target inappropriate behavior DOES NOT OCCUR Start with limited, short intervals, gradually increase time periods Can be used with groups or individual students
DRO BehaviorDRO Intervention Touching walls while walking in hallways IF students walk from classroom to destination without touching- reinforcement given Pushing while standing in lineFor every line-up with no pushing, reinforcement given Rude comments or put downsNo put downs or rude comments for _____ period of time = reinforcement Off task behavior during work periods such as talking Whole class working for ____ period = reinforcement
Differential reinforcement of Lower Levels of Behavior Reinforcement is earned when total amount of inappropriate behavior is less than a pre-determined criterion Good for reducing behaviors gradually over time Good for minor misbehaviors
DRL BehaviorDRL Reinforcement Staying too long in restroomReinforce student when she returns to class within X minutes- gradually reduce time allowed Trash left on floorReinforce when students reach target for total # items left- gradually reduce Rude comments or put downsReinforce when students make fewer comments-gradually reduce target Not turning in work when dueReinforce class for reducing numbers of zeroes-gradually reduce target
Judicious Use of Response Cost and Time-Out Powerful techniques Often misused If use of a technique does not reduce the undesired behavior-then it is not a punishment for that child
Punishment??? Todd is frequently late to class. Teachers send him to the office for a tardy slip. Todd’s late behaviors continue. Because he continues to be late to class, we can assume that the consequence is NOT a punishment to him. Best practice says that another system should be tried, based on why (function) Todd continues to be late.
Punishment????? During a social studies lesson, Karyn regularly makes wisecracks at another student’s expense. The teacher tries calling her down publicly for it, but the behavior does not decline. Karen is usually interested in pleasing the teacher, so, after class, she calls Karyn in and talks with her, explaining that she is very disappointed in the behavior and hopes that she will make better choices in the future. Karyn does not repeat the behavior. Clearly, the talk was punishment for Karyn.
Response Cost Remove tokens or privileges contingent upon target behaviors CAUTIONS Ensure continual access to earning tokens Have pre-determined fine schedule Take away portions of privileges, not entire privilege (example-minutes of free time, not entire amount) Make sure students understand the system in advance
Response Cost Applications Lose toy or object Lonely lunch Lunch at “detention” table Lose minutes of free time, recess Lost computer access Lost tokens or tickets
Time-Out Most effective when function of challenging behavior is attention Use non-exclusionary forms first (where student continues to be in class setting and have access to teaching) Use exclusionary if necessary Keep time-out periods brief Train students prior to time-outs
Time-Out Applications Non-Exclusionary Head down at desk Move to another desk in classroom Move to a time-out carrel in the classroom that is still in teaching area Teacher turn-away Time-out card used in conjunction with token system Time-out ribbon (Fox and Shapiro, 1978)
Time-Out Applications-Exclusionary Screen-placed around desk Screen or carrel-around another location in the classroom Time-out chair Time-out mat Time-out rug Time-out room ISS-for the period, for the day
Monitor Verbal Interactions (between students and adults) Terminology Triggers: Antecedents to problem behaviors-the action that precedes or triggers the behavior Agitation: Beginning signs of “off-task” or problem behavior Escalation: Increase in problem behavior in duration, frequency, or intensity Engagement: Child tries to “hook” us-or start something Disengagement: Refusing to be drawn in
John is working quietly at his desk when his teacher reminds him that his science project is due tomorrow or points will be taken off. John hasn’t finished the project. He throws his pen down, leans back in his chair, and frowns, but says nothing. The teacher asks, “ John, do you understand? Will you have your project for me tomorrow?” Without looking at his teacher, John answers, “I dunno.” His teacher proceeds to tell him that he has had lots of time to work on the project, and warns him that any more lost points will result in his making a low grade and having to take his final exam in science. John finally says in a loud and challenging tone, ”I’ve wasted all my time on this stupid project and I still don’t know what you want. Everything I’ve done you’ve said is wrong, and I’m sick of it!! There’s no pleasing you. Igive up-go ahead and take the points off. I don’t give a #$%^&**!!
Activity Describe: John’s trigger Signs of escalation Did John’s teacher do anything to contribute to the blow-up? What could she have done instead?
Mrs. Smith tells Josh to put away his AR book and get started on his math warm-up. Josh: Just a minute-I want to finish this chapter. Mrs. S: Now, Josh. You have already had more time for AR than usual. Josh: Keeps reading. No reply. Mrs. S: Josh, did you hear me? I said to put away your book. You only have 5 minutes left to finish your math warm-up. Josh: No reply. Mrs. S: Josh, if you don’t put away your book NOW, you will have to do your math during recess. Josh: (In a whining tone.) Mrs. S, that’s not fair. I just want to finish this chapter and I’m almost done. You let Susan finish her book. I can still do my math. Mrs. S: Josh, I let Susan finish AFTER she had done her math warm- up. And look, you’re not even half-way through the chapter. Josh (yelling): I’M FINISHING MY CHAPTER!! Mrs. S: Josh, you either give me that book or I’ll take it away for the rests of the week.
Activity Describe: The trigger Signs of agitation Engagement What would you advise Josh’s teacher ?
Final Thoughts Good behavior management is preventive, not reactive. Students should be able to describe both the rules and behavioral expectations Most students require explicit teaching of the expected behaviors-don’t commit “assumicide”. Reinforcing (rewarding) desired behaviors WILL increase their frequency