Clothing design and purpose revealed social status signified rank, status, office and authority.
Sumptuary Laws Dictated type of clothes and included the types of material and fabrics, the style of the clothes the color that people were allowed to wear only Emperor allowed to entirely purple toga The clothes that men wore, therefore, immediately reflected their status in society.
Basic garment Tunica made from spun wool knee-length, short-sleeved shirt belted at the waist worn largely by the plebians, slaves, and freedmenplebians undergarment for higher-class citizens provided more room to move cooler in the hot summer months
Tunica Gladiators Slaves Poor Non-citizen Undergarment For citizens. Used for warmth Worn casually
Toga Official garment of Rome Originally Etruscan for men and women Roman Republic- exclusively male Roman citizens Several types of togas worn by different populations of Roman citizens
Toga continued large single piece of cloth. ideal ceremonial toga was three times the wearer's height plus his waist measurement. Its width would be seven or eight feet, also depending on the wearer's height and girth. The corners were severely rounded Oval shape (literally egg-shaped, with the one end rounded less than the other
Roman boys White, knee-length tunicas featured a thin purple border wore a bulla pouch attached to a chain worn around the neck contained various protective charms Age 16 or 17 declared a man and citizen changed into a solid white tunic -- toga virilis
Dressing in a toga Difficult with so much material Two slaves helped Romans dress Where to put pecunia or speeches? Slaves carried items for masters Sinus- folded part at right hip, rising in front of body-acted as pocket
The elaborate folds of the later toga allowed for a substantial sinus, used as a small pocket. Sinus sinus
Toga style Usually natural wool color Political candidates bleach togas or whiten with chalk easily seen and recognized in crowds. candida (bright) aut sordita (dirty, worn) Derivative "candidate the brightened toga was the toga candida (candida = bright) toga candida may help with election but also source of derision in drama and on streets Derivative “sordid” If wearer had disarranged hair and is messy either wearer seeking big favor from patron or appearing as accused in civil law court “variation of "I am too poor and distraught to take care of myself, so please have pity."
When a boy becomes a man… Etruscans ◦ narrow maroon stripe added to one side of cloth (never really purple) Toga praetexta – Young boys wore narrow-striped version Toga virilis- manly toga Around age 16 feast of Liberalia usually in March Certain magistrates, priests also wore narrow-striped toga but person old enough that not mistaken for boy
Roman Women Early Etruscan period and early pre- republican monarchy women wore togas (but this changed) strategically draped so no male gawking rapidly went out of style some scholars connect it to Sabine women loosely draped toga on woman became sign of a loose woman -- only prostitutes wore them. (story) Agrippina the Younger, Nero's mother, appeared in public in toga To emphasize her power and man-like authority mob whispered "harlot" after she passed.
Roman Women Unmarried Roman women Wore a tunic similar to the Greek chiton Shorter sleeves, belted, adorned with pins to shape the garment into different styles. Woman’s status determined color, fabric married Roman women wore a stola, looser tunic, long, sleeveless with straps at shoulders, gathered at the waist. a pulla used to cover head and hair when out in public
Undergarments strophium et subligaculum leather, cloth First bikini?
Two Styles of the Chiton (Female Tunica) Female tunica
Footwear Socccus were slippers without upper work used for indoor wear by both sexes Solea were slippers with upper work commonly worn during feasts or banquets very poor were barefoot poor wore wooden shoes.