2 VRoma ProjectFocusWhen you finish this presentation you will be able to identify the basic garment worn by the Romans, the basic garments worn by women and men. You will also be able to distinguish the various types of togas.
3 The BasicsThere is some evidence that men wore a wool or linen loincloth as underwear.Additionally a woman might wear a soft leather band as if it were a primitive bra.However the tunica was the basic garment of the Romans.
4 The TunicIt was made of white wool and was 2 rectangles sewn together.It could have short sleeves or could be sleeveless.Tunics were worn with a belt and which could shorten the length of it depending on how active the wearer was.Slaves, working men and children wore it by itself.Roman male citizens would wear just the tunic while inside their homes.Most people wore a plain tunic plain tunicatunica angusticlavia had a narrow purple stripe and was worn by the Equites (Knights);tunica laticlavia had a broad purple stripe and was worn by senators.VRoma Projectsenatorial tunicVRoma Projectplain tunicVRoma Projectequestrian tunic
5 The Stripes MatterPurple was an expensive dye and thus the size the amount of purple used signified a person’s status.A broad purple stripe was worn by boys and those who had become curule magistrates. (Curule magistrates had achieved the office of aedile or a higher rank.)The broad stripe became a visual border of protection for those mentioned above.
6 The Toga The toga was a formal dress of the Roman citizen. It was heavy and hindered the movement of the man wearing it, thus it was only worn when required.It was required to be worn at public occasions such as at plays, chariot races, gladiatorial games, formal dinner parties, when voting or when calling on his patron.There were also several types of togas.
7 Toga, Toga, TogaToga Praetexta: was worn by boys and curule magistrates; it had a border consisting of a broad purple stripeToga Virilis: the toga of adulthood was off white without a border. (AKA toga pura)Toga Candida: was worn by candidates for office and was whitened so the candidate would stand outToga Pulla: a dark toga made of black wool for mourningToga Picta: a purple toga with gold thread worn by victorious generals and sometimes emperorsToga Purpura: this was an all purple toga that by law could only be worn by the emperor and may have been worn by the kingsToga Exigua: an old fashioned short toga
8 The WomenEarly on, women also seemed to have worn togas, but eventually the only women who wore them were prostitutes.Over their tunics, Roman matrons would wear a stola.A woman might also wear a palla.This garment acted as a shawl and could be worn over the shoulder or it could be worn in such a way that it acted as a hood covering the head.
9 FabricsThe men may have worn off white wool, but the women wanted different colors and fabrics.The women wore bight colors and if they could afford it linen, cotton and silk. Unfortunately cotton and silk had to be imported and were often literally worth their weight in gold.
10 It’s all about the HairJust as today, hairstyles and length of beards changed with the times.In the earliest of times long hair and a beard was fashionable for men, but then a clean shave and short hair became the standard until the emperor Hadrian tried to hide a facial flaw with a beard.
11 It’s all about the HairFor women the hairstyles started out simple but eventually grew to be as elaborate as they are now.Apparently they used a form of curling iron, extensions and wigs.Some even dyed their hair blonde!Hair was even imported from India and taken from captives in Germany to make wigs.A wealthy woman would naturally have need the help of a slave to style her hair.
12 And the shoesThe only distinction in footwear is outdoors vs. indoors, not male vs. female.Shoes were made mainly of leather and sometimes woodCalceus/Calcei: Outdoor shoes; shoes that encased the foot; with toga were part of the national costumeSolea/Soleae: Indoor shoes; Open toed, thong sandals; AKA sandalium/sandalia; would wear at a dinner party but not to a dinner party (a slave would carry them)Soccus/Socci: Slippers; soft leather tied over the foot; worn only at home
13 Oh, Jewelry too!A common a practical item of jewelry was a brooch that could fasten the clothing and make a statement. Some fibulae resembled a modern safety pin and were made of bronze, gold or silver. Woman wore a variety of necklaces, earrings, bracelets, armlets and anklets. The could be made of gold or silver with or without gems. Serpentine bracelets were popular. Earrings often dangled sometimes all the way to the shoulder. Garnets, emeralds and cameos were all popular and pearls were especially treasured.All pictures on this page are from the VRoma Project.
14 AssessmentFor the quiz you will need to know the various types of togas as well as what the women wore and that the tunic was the basic garment.