Presentation on theme: " What kind of clothing, fashion & adornments were there in ancient Rome and how is one able to determine the social class of a person based upon this?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What kind of clothing, fashion & adornments were there in ancient Rome and how is one able to determine the social class of a person based upon this?By Annie Lin11ANC1
2Clothingpublic display & recognition of status was an essential part of retaining one’s statusclothing was designed to reveal the social status of its wearerAccording to Sebesta & Bonfante, ancient Roman clothing signified “rank, status, office, or authority”.characteristics of clothing that distinguished one class of people from another were the:-design-colour-style-fabric-way it was wornAs the Romans were very competitive, sumptuary laws were passed to control the amount of display that people of different social standings were allowed to exhibit. We can thus deduce that ancient Romans were very fashion-conscious in regards to how clothing was used as a social marker.
3Men the simplest of garments & was a type of shirt Through the course of Roman history (753 B.C.E- 467 C.E.) there were two garments that were essential to the male wardrobe:TunicaTogaan oval shaped cloth draped around the bodywas worn to look smart- similar to wearing a suit today(on normal occasions- simple woolen cloak worn over tunic)only men who were Roman citizens could wear a togathe simplest of garments & was a type of shirtAlways worn under a toga or a long coatThese two garments were capable of sending complex messages about taste, social status, and power
4Middle & Upper-class Citizens TunicaThough the tunica was worn by all men in ancient Rome, the colour and fabric of it marked important social differences.a simple tunica made of undyed, rough woolmight also wear a simple belt around itsome working men wore a tunica that fastened over only one shoulder (exomis)belt used to adjust length of tunica by pulling fabric overtunicas made of softer wool, and later of linen and cottonUpper-class citizens:paid a great deal of attention to how their tunicas were beltedused either a narrow belt or a wider girdle, which might have pockets to hold personal belongingsin cooler seasons, wealthier men often wore two tunicas- a tunica interior & a tunica exteriorLower Class CitizensMiddle & Upper-class Citizens
5Source 2As can be seen in this mosaic of a man being attended by two slaves, on either side of him, working men & slaves frequently hitched their tunics higher over their belt for freer movement. (Source 2) They also sometimes wore tunics that left one shoulder uncovered & this is depicted not only in the mosaic but also in Source 1 on the left in the marble statue of a wounded Amazon wearing a exomis, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art.Source 1Tunics weren’t usually cut in a T-shape & this left extra material to drape under the arm. This can clearly be seen in Source 3 which is a statue of a first- century CE orator who is dressed in a tunic & toga.Source 3
6Tunica patterns & styles changed a great deal over time In early Rome, long sleeves were considered to be effeminate & tunics were cut above the knee. This can be seen in Source 4 where a man is wearing a knee-length tunica under a coat.Source 4By the later empire, long sleeves were common & tunicas extended almost to the feetLater, tunicas were worn without a belt or girdle, so that the fabric billowed about the bodyDuring the empire, tunicas became more decorative:- tunicas with clavi were worn by people of all classes, & the stripes became more elaborate, with rich colors & patterns-might also have striped bands on the sleeves & patterned panels
7Claviclavi- dyed coloured bands/stripes that ran vertically down the tunica from each shoulderthe width & colour of clavi indicated a person’s status, office or rankone of the primary forms of decorating a tunica & togaGreen- medical professionPurples- generals & emperorsBlue- philosophyFor example:Tunica angusti clavi: narrow purple stripes- worn by magistratestunica laticlavia: wide purple stripes- worn by senatorstunica palmate: made of purple silk, embroidered with gold thread & worn with a special toga- worn by victorious generals and emperorsSource 5Most ancient statues do not show clavi, however this wall panting (Source 5) from a lalarium in Pompeii depicts both the tunica laticlavia and the toga praetexta.Rules governing the clavi (sumptuary laws):All freeborn could wear a 3/8 inch side clavi (but those with money often bribed officials for a wider clavi)The latuc clavus was the widest & was a symbol for the highest rank
8Togawas very large (6m) & was draped around the body in an intricate mannerWas at first worn by both men & women but was discarded by women, except those of a disreputable sort, at the beginning of the Imperial RomeIn the Republic, all togas were white (to get the colour of pure whiteness it would have to be bleached which signified status for men & women) but later on they became quite colourfulonly worn by Roman men that were citizens & so was the earliest distinctive racial garment- a badge of Roman citizenshipLike the tunic, the colour, style, fabric & way it was worn was important in determining the status & age of the wearer.For example:Toga Praetexta: off=white toga with a broad purple border- worn by curule magistratesToga Virilis: plain toga of a typical citizen- worn by boys after age 15/ 16Toga Picta: crimson embroidered with gold- worn by victorious generals in triumphal processions & the emperorsToga Candida: given a shiny, glossy look by rubbing it with chalk- worn by candidates running for political officeToga Pulla: natural black wool- worn during periods of mourning
9Though the nature of the toga is known primarily through literary references, a number of statues still exist that provide us with information about the toga & the manner in which it was worn by the ancient Romans.Firstly, we are able to identify common features of the toga.umboAs can be seen on the statue to the left, the toga was draped around the body in a very complicated manner.First, the cloth was folded lengthwise- it was partly pleated at the fold. It was then draped over the left shoulder of the body & then under the right arm & then back over the left arm & shoulder.It was held in place partly by the weight of the material and partly by keeping the left arm pressed against the body.The large over-fold in the front of the body was called a sinus, and part of the material under this was pulled up and draped over the sinus to form the umbo.sinusA Roman senator dressed in a toga.
10Like the tunica, toga styles evolved considerably over time. Secondly, we are able to see changes to the toga over a period of time.Like the tunica, toga styles evolved considerably over time.Source 7Source 6By comparing the bronze statue on the left (Source 6), which is from the beginning of the first century BCE, to the statue of a Roman senator on the right (Source 7), from the late Republic or early centuries of the Empire, it is evident that the size & manner of draping the toga became more elaborate over time.
11The back of the toga was pulled over the head during religious ceremonies, as can be seen in the two marble statues of Augustus as High Priest.Source 8Due to the complicated nature of togas, it was only worn for formal occasions, such as a wedding depicted in Source 8.It was a difficult task to put the toga on properly by oneself, and according to Heimbach most wealthy Romans had a slave called a vestiplicus who was skilled in the ‘art of draping a toga’ and was specially trained to perform this function.
12Roman women had three main fashion staples: Stola(overdress)Tunica(under-dress)Standard item not only in men’s clothing but in women’s as wellwomen's tunics were fuller & longer, usually extending to the feetcolor, weight, fabric, texture, fit, sleeves and method of construction varied according to social class and the dictates of fashionThe Toga was at first worn by both men & women but was discarded at the beginning of the Imperial Rome, by women, except those of a disreputable sort such as prostitutes and adulteresses.Palla(wrap/ shawl)
13StolaA sleeveless, V-necked, floor length tube-like dress, worn over a tunic, with institia across the shoulders-shoulder straps that were made from cords or folded pieces of fabric to prevent the stola from falling & were attached in such a manner as to produce a scooped neckline and to provide vertical folds down the frontwas usually fastened with clasps and girdles were worn just below the bust and around the hipsThe stola was often made out of linen with a coloured border around the neck, and sometimes the cloth was embroidered with gold thread. It is probable though that the stola worn by lower-class women were typically made of undyed woolWas a symbol of marriage and was a way for a woman to publicly proclaim her respectability and adherence to tradition as it was the ideal garment for married womenStatues such as the one of the woman in Source 9 evidently displays the institia of her stola.PallaSource 10Source 9The palla was a large square of material that could be folded in half and draped in a variety of ways over the shoulder. It could also be pulled atop the head for extra warmth, as shown in the depiction of a matron’s elegantly draped & fringed palla, in Source?A palla was worn over a tunica and stola by respectable women when they went outsideWas usually made from linen or woolWealthy and high-status women in Ancient Roman society had their clothing dyed rich colors and made of fine materials such as silks and muslins
14ChildrenBoysBoys wore a knee-length tunica & a cloak over it in cold weather.Once a boy became a man, at age 16 or 17, he had a ‘coming of age’ celebration, where he would put aside his childish clothes, and wore an all-white tunic, which his father adjusted.GirlsGirls wore a simple tunic with a belt at the waist. When outdoors, they would wear a second tunic that reached their feet & in cold weather would wear a cloak.Interesting fact: children could wear the toga with the rank and status of their parents, but when they turned of age they were to discard it & put on the toga pura to gain their own status.
15FootwearSource 12Women typically wore sandals similar to those of men, but they were of softer, finer leatherVarious types of leather shoes and boots were worn, from heavy hobnailed varieties to light sandals & slippers:carlatina- sandal made from one piece of leather with a soft sole & openwork upper fastened by a laceSoccus- a sole without hobnails and a separate leather upper, were like house slipperscalceus was a hobnailed shoe secured by laces solea- a simple sandal with a thong between the toes and a hobnailed sole, worn inside by men & womencaliga- was a heavy sandal with a hobnailed sole and separate leather upper fastened by thongs worn by soldiersCalcei- sandals with broad strapsWinter shoes were often cork-soled Sometimes the soles were thickened to provide the illusion of height, usually for women Women did not wear stockings, but rather strips of woolen cloth wrapped around their legs if neededStreet shoes were made of leather and would offer better protection for the feetRoman women’s shoes were usually brightly coloured & would sometimes be decorated with jewellery and pearlsThere were no dramatic gender differences in Roman footwear, though it was possible to determine a person’s social status by their footwear. For example, upper-class males such as a senator, wore distinctive shoes that marked their status, such as the one in Source 11 & when comparing their footwear to that of a poorer person, such as the one in Source 12, the difference in quality is quite evident.Source 11
16JewelleryThe use of jewellery was widespread in Roman culture and became excessive.WomenWomen were passionately fond of jewellery and would wear items such as rings, earrings, necklaces, pendants, cameos and bracelets- a representative collection of such jewellery that would be worn by the women can be seen in Source 13.Upper- class women wore considerable amounts of jewellery, made from gold & silver set with precious gems, to show off their wealthPoor women would wear jewellery made from cheaper materials such as copper or bronzeSource 13Gold coins were often made into jewellery, such as into a ring in Source 15 or into a wristband in Source 16.Gold bracelets were often fashioned in the form of snakes, as shown in Source 14Source 15Source 14Source 16
17MenGood manners dictated adult male citizens to only wear one item of jewellery- a personalized signet ring that was used to make an impression in sealing wax in order to authorize documents. These signet rings were originally made of iron but later came to be made of gold, such as in Source 17. However, not all men followed this and some wore as many as sixteen.Source 17Source 18Source 19Rings often had relief carvings, as can be seen in Source 18, or intaglios, seen in Source 19.
18A bulla cannot be worn by a slave & only by free citizens ChildrenChildren wore a special locket around their neck, given to them at birth, called a bulla. It contained an amulet for protection against evil and was worn on a chain, cord, or strap. Girls wore their bulla until the eve of their wedding day, when their bulla was set aside with other childhood things such as her toys & clothes. Boys wore their bulla until the day they became a citizen, around the age of 15/ 16, & it was put aside and carefully saved. If the owner of the bulla had won special honours, he could wear it in ceremonial parades, to protect himself from the jealousy of others.A bulla was made of differing substances depending upon the wealth of the child’s family. For example, the bulla of an upper class child would be made of gold, such as the one that can be seen in Source 20 of a 2nd Century Roman Bulla.A bulla cannot be worn by a slave & only by free citizensSource 20
19Ancient Roman sewing needles were coarse and unwieldy by modern standards and so sewing was kept to a minimum. Hence, Roman clothing, both male & female, was frequently pinned with fibula- fastenings such as broaches or clasps. Such a clasp can be seen in Source 21. Many of these fibula were made of gold, sometimes carved with beautiful designs, and elaborately decorated with precious jewels. The Romans were very fond of cameo, an engraving upon a stone such as a gem, as can be seen in Source 22 & Source 23.Source 21: The lacerna, a military type cloak, was fastened on the right shoulder with a gold or jewelled clasp or brooch.Source 22Source 23The design of the fibula was very similar to today’s safety-pins, which can be evidently seen in Source 24.Source 24
20The great variation in hair styles can be seen below Makeup& Hair stylesWomenWomen relied mostly on elaborate hairstyles & jewellery rather than clothing to vary their appearance as they would constantly change their hairstyle. For example, one year ringlets would be fashionable and the next year hair piled high on the head would be, as depicted in Source 25 of a bust of an elite Roman woman with a Flavian coiffure.Hairstyles for women were an important sign of status & so they varied according to a women's social status. The wealthier women had more elaborate hairstyles as they could afford wigs, hair dye & other ornaments for the hair.Source 25The great variation in hair styles can be seen below
21Rich women were very fashion conscious and had specially trained slaves, ornatrices, to help arrange their elaborate hairstyles and apply their makeup.Women would wear elaborate wigs & wigs made from the hair of Germans captured in battle were very popular due to their natural blondnessWomen would often dye their hair to blondes & reds. (Batavian foam was used to produce blonde hair & fat & ashes were used to produce reds.) They would also wear false hair pieces to make their hair appear thicker or longer.Body hair was regarded as undesirable & was removed with pumice stone. Facial hair was also removed with resin & pitch.Pins , that were usually decorated or jewelled, were used to keep the hair in place. An example of one can be seen in Source? of a pin made of bone.In this painting, a ornatrice can be seen styling the hair of another woman.MakeupThe first application of makeup was a layer of foundation, which was usually made up of chalk & orris root & a mixture of fat, starch & tin oxide. The wealthy often favoured a white lead paste which was extremely dangerous as it was poisonous. Next, rouge, made of red ochre, was applied to stain the cheeks & lips. Special attention was paid to women’s eye makeup as well as to the eyebrows. The makeup Kohl was applied & was made from using a cosmetic grinder to produce a mixture of soot & galena. The women also used eye shadow, made from such things as saffron & malachite. All of these cosmetic items were kept in a container, such as the one in Source 26.Source 26
22MenIn early times, Roman men wore their hair long & had full beards but after about 300 BC, it became the practice to wear their hair short & be clean-shaven, such as what is illustrated in Source 27. However, if a man was in mourning he was permitted to grow his hair & beard as a sign of sorrow. During the 1st century CE, men began to style their hair & wear beards again. Like women, men would occasionally dye their hair in a variety of dark & light shades & the wearing of wigs also became fashionable over time. If a man was experiencing hair loss, he would often wear a wig to cover it as it was seen as a disorder.Source 27One could usually determine the social class of a person based on their hairstyle as the poor often ignored fashion since they weren’t able to afford the expense of luxuries that wealthy men could, for example seeing a daily barber.ChildrenGirls: Young girls usually wore their hair knotted at the back of the neck or in a ponytail, but others had curls or bangs which were worn either straight or curled.Boys: Boys didn't shave until they reached maturity & could wear the toga as they were now deemed as citizens. When they shaved for the first time, their remnants were often preserved in a small box & offered as a sacrifice to a god.
23BibliographyThe World of Roman Costume. Ed. Judith Lynn Sebesta and Larissa Bonfante. University of Wisconsin Press, Pp. 5-6)