Presentation on theme: "The Impact of Civilisation on Medical Developments"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Impact of Civilisation on Medical Developments Ancient EgyptThe Impact of Civilisation on Medical Developments
2 The Nile Gives Birth to a New Civilisation (A) THE DELTA North of Memphis, the Nile divided into channels, to form a delta. Much of this land was swampy, but the rest was good for farming. (B) OASIS The Western Desert had a few places where enough water was available for crops to be grown. These were called oases. (C) THE EASTERN DESERT The Eastern Desert had no oases but it contained valuable minerals, including gold. (D) THE VALLEY The valley was only 19 km wide but over 5,960 km long. (E) CATARACTS Ships sailing south were stopped by cataracts (rapids).Good Farming LandIrrigation systemsComplex flood patternsMathematical skills requiredAdvanced planning required
3 Producing More than enough Food (A) HARVEST When the main crops were ready, nearly everyone - men and women, even priests - helped with the harvest. (B) MUSIC Musicians played while work went on in the fields. At planting time, magic spells were chanted to make the crops grow. (C) WINNOWING Women scooped the grain up with wooden trays, letting the chaff blow away while the heavier grain fell to the ground. (D) TAXES Farmers paid part of their crop as taxes. Scribes kept careful records of the amounts. (E) CATTLE Young boys helped to look after the livestock. A man's wealth could be judged by the cattle he owned. Farmers also owned sheep, goats, and donkeys.Surplus Food ProducedStore for future useTrade for other goodsNot everyone needs to farmNew trades and specialities develop
4 Trading the Surplus New Products and Ideas can be imported Makes money which can be investedCitiesTo please the Gods(A) MERCHANT SHIP Small boats were made of bundles of reeds tied together. Larger ships were built of wood. This one sailed through the dangerous Red Sea. (B) CARGO Ships had no deck, except for short sections at each end, and the crew stowed cargo in the open hold. The ship had oars and one large sail. (C) THE LAND OF PUNT Ships that sailed to Punt were carried across the desert in pieces and built on the shore of the Red Sea. Punt was probably in eastern Africa, but nobody knows exactly where.
5 Craftsmen New jobs available for talented craftsmen (A) POTTERY Pots of many shapes and sizes were made from local clay. It was shaped by hand in a mold made of stiff sand, given a glaze, and hardened in fire. (B) GOLD The Egyptians had plenty of gold, mostly from mines in Nubia. Jewellery and gold-plated objects were made. Statues and even a king's coffin were made of solid gold.(C) SANDALS The shoemaker's trade was simple, because the only shoes people wore were sandals, made of leather or papyrus reed. Usually they went barefoot. (D) WOOD CARVING This man is making a wooden animal. Most woodworking tools, such as saws and chisels, have not changed much since.New jobs available for talented craftsmenSurplus food Production allows for their wages to be paidNew Products and Skills DevelopSome with medical application!
6 A New Hierarchy Develops Agricultural and Trading opportunities allow New Hierarchy to be formedElite/AristocracyPay wages to others to work for themLife of leisureFree time to thinkNew ideasNew InventionsNew Skills
8 Hieroglyphics Development of Writing Papyrus Pictographs Allows ideas to be transferredCan spread throughout EgyptCan be passed down through generations
9 Sophisticated Civilisation Large Scale projects were now feasiblePlanningWriting and MathematicsNew ToolsPublic Works projects(A) RAISING STONE BLOCKS One of the hardest jobs was moving the heavy stone blocks into place. The builders made huge ramps of earth and dragged the stones up the ramps with ropes. (B) SUPERVISORS Officials, who were probably priests, directed the gangs of workmen. (C) SHAPING THE STONE Each stone was carefully measured and shaped to fit into place. (D) ACCIDENTS Many workmen were killed or injured, crushed by the heavy stone blocks.
10 Towns and Cities Develop Craftsmen, traders, labourers find it easier and more convenient to live in towns and cities.Urban economy and lifestyle developsMedical threats to an urban population?
11 Hygienic Lifestyle Personal Hygiene Public Works allow for Very importantPublic Works allow forDrain SystemsWater Delivery systemsBathing
12 Who were the Medical Care Givers? “It is seven days from yesterday since I saw my love,And Sickness has crept over me,My limbs have become heavy,I cannot feel my own body.If the Master-Physicians come to meI gain no comfort from their remedies.And the priest-magicians have no cures,My sickness is not diagnosed.My love is better by far for me than any remedies.She is more important than all the books of medicine.”Egyptian Love Poem c1500 BC
13 Religion Very Important Temples Priests Charms Alternative medical care from master physiciansCharmsStill used extensively
14 Imphotep Master Physicians Pharoah Zozer’s Physician c2600 BC can be afforded by the very wealthyPharoah Zozer’s PhysicianAdviserArchitect on some PyramidsHealerc2600 BCBecomes God of MedicineFor Greeks and Egyptiansc500 BC
15 The Nile TheoryAttempt to Explain how the Body works and why people get sickRelated to their Natural Environment and their understanding of how the world worksRiver NileChannels (River)Mixture of Blood and AirFlows from the centre to extremetiesDiseaseCaused by blockages of the channelsCaused by rotting foodLetting off gasesPrevents normal flowA Rational Explanation
16 Ebers and Smith Papyri Smith Papyrus Ebers Papyrus C1700 BC (but refers to Imphotep’s era)Surgical treatments for woundsEbers PapyrusC1500 BC110 PagesTreatments for diseasesHerbal RemediesRemedies used by Gods
17 Medical Kit1) knives; (2) drill; (3) saw; (4) forceps or pincers; (5) censer; (6) hooks; (7) bags tied with string; (8, 10) beaked vessel; (11) vase with burning incense; (12) Horus eyes; (13) scales; (14) pot with flowers of Upper and Lower Egypt; (15) pot on pedestal; (16) graduated cubit or papyrus scroll without side knot (or a case holding reed scalpels); (17) shears; (18) spoons.
18 The Afterlife? Elaborate death ritual Embalming Procedure Directed by PriestsUses sophisticated tools and techniquesHOWEVERIt is not a medical procedureHe is already dead!
19 MummificationExcessive respect for the Dead bodyWill hinder medical developments for many yearsSacred Body does not allow for exploration or experimentation.Dissection Forbidden(A) ANUBIS The priest in charge of the mummification wore the mask of Anubis (the god of the dead). (B) INCENSE A priest stands by, holding sweet-smelling incense. (C) WRAPPING THE BODY The body, or mummy, was wrapped in layers of linen before being placed in the coffin. (D) NATRON Natron, a kind of soda, was placed in the body to dry it out before it was wrapped in linen. (E) SOAKING THE BANDAGES Sometimes, linen strips were soaked in plaster so they would harden when dry.
20 Legacy of Egypt Greece and Rome conquer Egypt Greece and Rome respect many of the Egyptian ideas on medicineEgyptian Physicians in demand in Ancient GreeceRole of Alexandria
21 What was new in Egyptian Medicine? What was the same? (compared to Prehistoric Medicine)What was the same?
22 What was new in Egyptian Medicine? What was the same? (compared to Prehistoric Medicine)What was the same?Master PhysiciansHerbal remediesAttempt to explain diseases(Nile Theory)Role of Gods and SpiritsCan identify parts of the bodyLittle understanding of internal workings of bodyImported new herbs from other civilisationsNo idea what actually caused diseasesMetal InstrumentsPaid for medical careSome Public Health measuresHygiene identified
23 Marking SchemeLevel 0General or simplistic Answer (1 Mark)Level 1Specifically answers question with relevant example or explanation (2 – 3 Marks)Level 2Sophisticated answer that shows an understanding of the complex forces involved. Good use of relevant examples (4 – 5 Marks)Write a simple paragraph explaining how the following affected medicineWealthTradeWritingReligionThe Nile and FarmingWhich is the most important of the 5?List all the kinds of healers mentioned sources 1 to 5 on page 18Answer questions 1, 5, 6 and 7 on pages 20/21HomeworkActivity on page 21Design an advertisement for one of the treatments described on pages 20/21