9 Satellite View of the Nile River and Egypt Nile River Egypt Persian Gulf Nile River “Delta” Mediterranean Sea
10 Water flows down hill. The Nile flows and empties into the Mediterranean Sea. So…. ”Upper Egypt” is higher (upper) and water flows to “Lower Egypt” (below) which empties into the Mediterranean. Make sense?
11 Some Nile Facts page 39 Hunters and gatherers moved into the Nile River valley between 6000 B.C. to 5000 B.C. The Nile River Valley was green and fertile. The Nile River provided water to the dry land. Water was used for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and farming. The river also provided fish and supported plants and animals. White NileThe Blue Nile and the White Nile come together to form the Nile River
12 Some More Interesting Nile Facts… Page 40 Just before the Nile empties into the Mediterranean Sea it branches out and forms a “ delta.” The delta soil is very fertile. To the left of the Nile is the largest desert in the world! The Sahara Desert. To the right side is the Eastern Desert. Ancient Egyptians called the deserts the “Red Land” because of their extreme dryness & heat. The deserts kept enemies (the bad guys) away. In the south, dangerous cataracts blocked enemies from approaching Egyptian villages and cities. The Mediterranean Sea did allowed ships into Egypt.
15 Nile River People Notes Page 41-42 Egyptians depended on the Nile’s floods to grow their crops. The Nile floods each spring brought very fertile soil (silt) to the farmlands. Farmers along the Nile planted wheat, barley, and flax. This provided enough food for themselves and their animals. Egyptian farmers knew to use irrigation. The “ Shadoof ” was invented to help lift water from the river and wells.
18 More River People Notes… Egyptians also developed geometry to survey (measure land). Egyptians used papyrus (a reed-plant that grows along the nile) to make baskets, sandals, rafts, and later a form of paper. Egyptians also developed a form of writing using picture-symbols called hieroglyphics. Scribes used hieroglyphics to keep written records.
20 Two United Kingdoms The King of Upper Egypt, King Narmer (also called King Menes) conquered Lower Egypt and united the two kingdoms. As one united kingdom the Egyptian civilization grew and prospered. Farming grew, as did other job specializations, as did astronomy and mathematics.
21 Dynasty King Narmer wore a combined red and white crown. He wore the white which symbolized Upper Egypt and red which symbolized Lower Egypt. Together, the white and the red symbolized a united Egypt, of which he was the king. When King Narmer died, his son became pharaoh, and then his son, and so on. Such a succession of rulers in one family is called a dynasty.
22 Egyptian Society Much like Mesopotamia Pharaoh, or king, is highest –Priests and Nobles next –Traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes –Farmers and herders –Unskilled workers
24 What Is Papyrus, And How Did The Egyptians Use It? Page 46, What Did You Learn? A leafy plant eaten for its vitamins A waterway connecting the Blue and White Niles A reed type plant used to make sandals, baskets, and paper A reed type of plant Used as a medicine
26 Correct! Papyrus was used for all of those things and more! Continue
27 What Rights Did Women Have In Ancient Egypt? Women had few or no rights They could own and pass on property, buy and sell goods, make wills, & divorce They had only rights given to them by the Pharaoh They were allowed to own cattle and ducks
32 Correct! Hieroglyphics were a highly developed system of writing. Scribes were responsible for using it to keep written records. Continue
33 What Was The Significance of Narmer’s Double Crown? It was only for decoration It meant that he was one two kings who ruled He was very arrogant and wanted two crowns He wore a double crown after he conquered Lower Egypt
34 Correct! Narmer, or Menes, wanted all to know that he was king of all of Egypt! Thanks for playing! That’s all for now.