2 Land of Egypt-Nile River is the longest river in the world & is where Egypt was founded. The river runs northward. This causes Egypt to be divided into 2 parts ----Upper Egypt, located in the South-Lower Egypt, located in the North.-The Nile River also floods every year & deposits a rich mud that the crops can be grown in.-Farmers were able to grow multiple crops b/c of the rich soil, which lead to a surplus of food.-Geographic Barriers of Egypt – They were there to protect the people of Egypt from invaders. They were bordered by deserts, the Nile River, the Red Sea to the East & the Mediterranean Sea to the North.
3 Egyptian Society-Social classes – There were 4 in Ancient Egypt, w/ the ruling class at the top & peasants at the bottom. There was a very rigid society but women did have more equal status. They were allowed to keep their property when they married but they married very young.-Writing – The Egyptians developed their own writing system called hieroglyphics. This form of writing was done by carving it into a stone.-Paper was made later called papyrus. It was made from the papyrus reed that could be found along the Nile River.-Scribes were masters at the art of writing & also taught others how to write. Young boys began to be trained as scribes at the age of 10.
4 Egyptian Society-Math – The Egyptians were able to calculate the area & volume & were able to use geometry to survey flooded land.-Anatomy – B/c of mummification, the Egyptians were able to gain a lot of expertise in anatomy.-Astronomy – They studied the stars & had a name for the brightest star, which was called Sirius. It let the Egyptians know when the Nile was about to flood. They were also able to develop an accurate 365-day lunar calendar based on the movement of the moon & the star Sirius.
5 Egyptian Religion-The Egyptians were polytheistic (worshiping many gods) & had a large number of gods dedicated to heavenly bodies & natural forces.-Re (Amon-Re) was the Sun god who helped control the growth of crops.-Osiris & Isis were husband & wife & he was the god of the river & land. He also judged people & was reborn after death like the Nile River. Isis was the Goddess of the Thorne & brought him back to life.-The Egyptians believed very strongly in an afterlife. B/c Isis brought Osiris back to life, all dead were placed in tombs, given the name Osiris, & were resurrected & become one w/ Osiris.-To be prepared for the afterlife, some of the Egyptian dead were mummified. This was the process of preserving the dead by drying out their bodies to prevent them from rotting. Once a dead person was mummified, they could be reborn & join Osiris.
6 Egyptian Economy -Large plantations were owned by the pharaoh. -Peasant workers had their land given to them by the pharaoh in exchange for them giving some of their harvest to him. They grew wheat, barley, flax, & cotton.-Most of their crops are given to the pharaoh or lords to pay taxes.-They traded excess foods to other nations instead of storing it.-They would trade in caravans, or groups of people who travel together to other civilizations to trade their goods.-They later came up w/ shipping advances by being able to ship things by boat down the Nile.-The Nile was not navigable once you reached a certain point b/c of cataracts.
7 Egyptian History-Menes was the king who united Upper & Lower Egypt into one empire to create the 1st Egyptian dynasty.-Egyptians are known for their pyramids. They were built as part of a large complex of buildings used for burials of pharaohs & their families. The largest & most magnificent was built at Giza & is 1 of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. They are guarded by the Sphinx, a figure w/ the head of human & body of a lion.-Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt-Old Kingdom – The title of pharaoh became popular & pyramids were built.-Middle Kingdom – Pharaohs during this time period took on helpful projects but the empire also declined.-New Kingdom – Many great rulers during this time, including Hatshepsut, who was the 1st woman pharaoh.-Other famous rulers – King Tut, who restored the old gods, Ramses II, who reigned from & tried to regain the Egyptian empire, & Cleopatra, who tried to re-establish Egypt’s independence but was defeated b/c of her relationship w/ Rome.