2PreviewLand of the Nile- Egypt is located in northeastern Africa. Its ancient people created one of the world’s earliest civilizations.Civilization Develops from Agriculture- Ancient Egyptians took advantage of the annual flooding of the Nile to develop a highly productive system of agriculture.Trade Brings Great Wealth- The surplus of crops grown along the Nile River Valley provided the opportunity for trade.
3Reach Into Your Background The geography of ancient Egypt developed around the Nile River. From what you know about geography explain how the Nile River could have impacted the lives of Egyptian people.(5 minutes)
4Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5Key TermEgypt- Located in the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is a land of deserts, mountains, and the Nile River.
7Key Ideas- Land of the Nile The Nile is the most important feature of Egypt’s geography, and it has played a major role in the country’s history. It is surrounded by desert on either side.As Egyptian civilization developed, two major kingdoms formed: Upper Egypt, which is along the Nile River; and Lower Egypt, which is in the Nile River delta.Almost all the cities of ancient and modern Egypt have developed along the Nile River.
8Ancient Egypt: Built Along a River Egypt is located in northeastern Africa.The Nile is the longest river in the world—more than 4,000 miles!The area where the Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea is called a delta.
9Key TermNile River- The longest river in the world. The Nile is the most important feature of Egypt’s geography.
10Key TermDelta- A triangular area of flat land shaped like a triangle at the mouth of a river.
11Ancient EgyptIn ancient times, most of the population of Egypt lived near the Nile River.Some lived in Lower Egypt near the Nile River delta. Others lived in Upper Egypt along the Nile River.
12Ancient EgyptFarming was generally successful around the Nile because of a material called silt, which was left by the river when it floods.
13Major CitiesMajor cities, as well as farming villages, also developed along the Nile.The largest cities in ancient Egypt were Thebes, Memphis, and Giza.
14Location, Location, Location All of history’s earliest civilizations developed in river valleys, due to the fertility of the soil that allowed for the eventual development of an agricultural surplus.
15An Important CropAn important crop in ancient Egypt was a reed called papyrus.Papyrus grew easily in marshes and was also used to make rope, matting, and sandals.Papyrus eventually became one of Egypt’s most important crops.
16Papyrus: The Invention of Paper Video- The Invention of Paper
17Built Along a RiverThe chief difference between the civilization of the Nile and those of the Tigris-Euphrates was the reliability of the Nile’s flooding.
18Built Along a RiverThe annual flooding of the Nile led to a bounty in agricultural production that jump-started Egyptian civilization and made Egypt the granary of the ancient world.
19Egypt TodayToday, Egypt is a busy modern country. However, most of its population is still located along the Nile River.In fact, the valley of the Nile is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.
20Why Does It MatterEgypt’s geography was the reason it developed into such an advanced civilization.Its major cities, and much of its population, were centered along the Nile.The river has made life in the region possible.
21Egypt and the Nile River Video- Egypt and the Nile River
23Key Ideas- Civilization Develops from Agriculture Ancient Egyptians used irrigation techniques to help them grow a variety of crops. They also raised domestic animals.Cooperation and organization were required to maintain the agricultural system. Governments grew as a result.The surplus of crops enabled some people to work in areas other than farming. Many people became craftsmen and artists, which helped to advance Egyptian civilization.
24The Growth of StatesAgriculture and the irrigation projects were the foundations of early Egyptian civilization.Irrigation projects required a lot of workers.
25The Growth of StatesLeaders emerged to manage workers and supervise construction efforts.As the amount of farmland increased, so did the quantity of food.
26The Growth of StatesA surplus of crops enabled some Egyptians to work in other jobs besides farming.The combination of growing governments and specialized workers led to the growth of towns.
27Key Ideas- Trade Brings Great Wealth Egyptians exported crops such as wheat, barley, papyrus, and linen. They imported timber, copper, gold, and precious stones.Their trading partners were mainly other regions in Africa, such as Nubia and Punt, and parts of Southwest Asia.Imports were used to create luxury items for wealthy Egyptians.
28Egypt’s Trade EconomyEgypt’s food surplus eventually led to a trade economy that made it the richest kingdom of its time.
29Egypt’s Trade EconomyEgypt was able to trade its agricultural products for goods that were scarce in Egypt, such as timber, precious metals, and gemstones.
30Trade Brings LuxuryEgyptians did not have to rely on trade for the goods they needed to survive.Instead, they could exchange the river’s bounty for goods desired by the rich.
31Trade Brings LuxuryBy the 1500s BCE, Egypt had become the wealthiest civilization in ancient Africa.The Egyptians had the Nile and its valley to thank for their riches.
32Trade Brings LuxuryBy learning how to harness the power of the Nile, Egyptians were able to create a flourishing civilization.Even today, people still depend on the Nile and the resources it provides.
33Key TermEconomy- The way a country manages its money and resources to produce, buy, and sell goods and services.