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Ancient Egypt and NubiaChapter 3 Ancient Egypt and Nubia
The Geography of the NileI. Nile is the world’s largest river A. Flows from central Africa to Mediterranean Sea (4,000 miles)
The Geography of the NileB. Two main sources – White Nile and Blue Nile C. Flows North to Mediterranean Sea
The Geography of the NileD. Cataracts – a rock filled rapid in a river
The Geography of the Nile1. Lower Nubia – between First and Second Cataracts 2. Upper Nubia – between Second and Sixth Cataracts
The Geography of the Nile3. Upper Egypt – North of the First Cataract 4. Lower Egypt – further north – fertile marshy area
The Geography of the NileE. Delta – the place at the mouth of a river where it splits into several streams to form an area shaped like a triangle
The Geography of the NileF. Silt – rich, fertile soil deposited by the flooding of a river
The Geography of the NileG. Floods deposit rich soil – ideal for farming H. “Black Land” and “Red Land”
The Geography of the Nile1. Called land “Kemet” – the black land 2. Dark soil left by flooding
The Geography of the Nile3. Desert – the red land a. Beyond fertile river banks
The Geography of the Nileb. Useless for farming c. Protection from invaders
The Geography of the NileII. Civilizations A. Communities along Nile delta in lower Egypt – 4000 B.C.
The Geography of the NileB. Communities in Nubia – 3800 B.C. C. Importance of trade
The Geography of the Nile1. Nile River 2. Caravans to Mesopotamia 3. Gold, silver, copper, and pottery
The Geography of the NileD. Trade in Egypt possible by sailing upriver or downriver E. Trade in Nubia possible by land only due to cataracts
Egypt’s Kings and QueensI. Important terms A. Dynasty – a family of rulers
Egypt’s Kings and QueensB. Pharaoh – the title of the kings of ancient Egypt 1. Had absolute power over their people
Egypt’s Kings and Queens2. Decisions became law 3. Were also religious leaders
Egypt’s Kings and QueensC. Regent – someone who rules for a child until the child is old enough to rule
Egypt’s Kings and QueensII. Important Kingdoms and Rulers A. Menes 1. Began first dynasty
Egypt’s Kings and Queens2. United Upper and Lower Egypt 3. Built city of Memphis
Egypt’s Kings and QueensB. Old Kingdom 1. Good rulers 2. Well-run government
Egypt’s Kings and QueensC. Middle Kingdom 1. Restored order after end of Old Kingdom
Egypt’s Kings and Queens2. Sponsored irrigation projects 3. Built canal between Nile and Red Sea
Egypt’s Kings and Queens4. Lost control to foreign invaders
Egypt’s Kings and QueensD. New Kingdom 1. Drove out invaders 2. Developed large armies
Egypt’s Kings and QueensE. Hatshepsut 1. Stepmother of Thutmose III 2. Appointed regent
Egypt’s Kings and Queens3. Had herself proclaimed pharaoh 4. Ruled during time of peace and economic success
Egypt’s Kings and QueensF. Thutmose III 1. One of the greatest pharaohs of New Kingdom
Egypt’s Kings and Queens2. Conquered many lands for Egypt 3. Educated man – studied plants
Egypt’s Kings and Queens4. Treated conquered people with mercy
Egyptian Religion I. Important Terms A. Afterlife – the next life, in which the dead are believed to live again
B. Mummy – a dead body preserved in lifelike conditionEgyptian Religion B. Mummy – a dead body preserved in lifelike condition
Egyptian Religion C. Pyramid – a huge building with four sloping outside walls shaped like triangles. In Egypt, pyramids were built as royal tombs.
A. Polytheistic societyEgyptian Religion II. Religion A. Polytheistic society
B. Religion explained workings of natureEgyptian Religion B. Religion explained workings of nature C. Tried to please gods
1. Osiris – god of living and dead; afterlifeEgyptian Religion D. Gods 1. Osiris – god of living and dead; afterlife
Egyptian Religion 2. Amon-Re – chief god 3. Isis – wife of Osiris
A. Bodies mummified to exist in afterlifeEgyptian Religion III. Afterlife A. Bodies mummified to exist in afterlife
B. Pyramid – tomb for pharaoh a. 20 or more years to buildEgyptian Religion B. Pyramid – tomb for pharaoh a. 20 or more years to build
c. Hard and dangerous workEgyptian Religion b. West bank of Nile c. Hard and dangerous work
d. Possessions buried with pharaohEgyptian Religion d. Possessions buried with pharaoh
Culture of Egyptians I. Key Terms A. Hieroglyphs – a kind of picture writing in which some pictures stand for ideas or things and others stand for sounds
Culture of Egyptians B. Papyrus – an early form of paper made from a reedlike plant found in the marshy areas of the Nile delta
Culture of Egyptians C. Astronomer – A scientist who studies the stars and other objects in the sky
Culture of Egyptians II. Social Classes A. Pharaoh B. Upper Class
2. members of pharaoh’s court 3. noblesCulture of Egyptians 1. priests 2. members of pharaoh’s court 3. nobles
Culture of Egyptians C. Middle Class 1. merchants 2. skilled workers
1. farm labor, built roads and temples. 2. by far the largest classCulture of Egyptians D. Peasants 1. farm labor, built roads and temples. 2. by far the largest class
E. Slaves 1. prisoners from wars 2. a separate classCulture of Egyptians E. Slaves 1. prisoners from wars 2. a separate class 3. had some rights
1. had most of the rights of men 2. noble women had special rightsCulture of Egyptians F. Women 1. had most of the rights of men 2. noble women had special rights
Culture of the EgyptiansIII. A land of great learning A. Writing 1. keep track of growing wealth 2. make new symbols for complicated ideas
3. began writing on papyrus a. Much more convenient than clay tabletsCulture of Egyptians 3. began writing on papyrus a. Much more convenient than clay tablets
4. Rosetta stone discovered in 1799 A. Found near city of Rosetta Culture of Egyptians 4. Rosetta stone discovered in 1799 A. Found near city of Rosetta B. Translated hieroglyphs into Greek
1. Astronomers used skies to determine when Nile would floodCulture of Egyptians B. Science 1. Astronomers used skies to determine when Nile would flood 2. Found 365 days make a year
Culture of Egyptians C. Medicine 1. Performed surgeries
2. Set broken bones and treated spine injuriesCulture of Egyptians 2. Set broken bones and treated spine injuries
a. Creating medicine from plantsCulture of Egyptians 3. Practiced herbalism a. Creating medicine from plants
Artisans – a worker who is skilled in making somethingCulture of Egyptians Artisans – a worker who is skilled in making something
Bellringer 9/30/13 What are three things you learned from this chapter? *Finish Section 3-5 paper and turn in tray when you are finished.
Bellringer What are the dates for each of the Egyptian Kingdoms? Put completed Bellringers in the tray Complete your survey for Yearbook Continue working.
Egypt’s Powerful Kings and Queens Sec. #2. Hatshepsut Hatshepsut ruled Egypt during the New Kingdom She was a female pharaoh most known for creating a.
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The Culture of Ancient Egyptians
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Chapter 2.2: Pyramids on the Nile
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