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CHAPTER 5.  Recognize Important Key Terms: Delta, Nile River, Pyramid, Sahara Desert, Kush, Cataracts, Silt, hieroglyphics  Explain how major physical.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5.  Recognize Important Key Terms: Delta, Nile River, Pyramid, Sahara Desert, Kush, Cataracts, Silt, hieroglyphics  Explain how major physical."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 5

2  Recognize Important Key Terms: Delta, Nile River, Pyramid, Sahara Desert, Kush, Cataracts, Silt, hieroglyphics  Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate and location have influenced settlements, interactions and economies of the ancient world.  Analyze the relationship of physical geography to the development of ancient river valley civilizations.  Identify some characteristics and important contributions of Ancient Egypt.

3  While other Empires were growing in Asia, two civilizations began to flourish along the Nile River Valley.  One of these civilizations was Egypt in the North.  The other, Kush, was located in the southern Nile River Valley.

4  The Egyptians called their land, KEMET, which means black land, after the soil.  Egypt has a very hot, dry climate, so they were very dependent on the Nile for drinking, bathing and of course, watering crops.  The Nile runs for over 4000 miles!(The longest river in the world)  At its source, the Nile is actually two separate rivers. The Blue Nile (eastern Africa) and the White Nile (Central Africa) KEMET

5  In the North, there is a DELTA (fan shaped area of fertile marshland) This area makes it difficult for invaders.  To the West, there is the Sahara Desert. This area helps to keep Egypt ISOLATED (separate from others)  In the South, Egypt's Nile CATARACTS (waterfalls or rapids in a river) made it difficult for invaders to sail ships up the Nile to invade Egypt.

6  The main advantage of the Nile River was that it flooded around the same time each year.  Also, the flooding was less destructive than in other river valleys.  When the Nile flooded in the summer, the floods left behind SILT.  Egyptian farmers knew the cycle and were ready to plant their crops when the floods receded.

7  Journals throughout History  Ancient Egypt-Land of Abundance

8  Farmers planted wheat, barley and flax.  They also had many domesticated animals.  Some tools that were used included the plow and the SHADOOF (bucket attached to a long pole)  Egyptians also gathered PAPYRUS (reed plant) to weave rope, sandals, baskets and river rafts. They also used it to make paper.

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10  Just like in Mesopotamia, the Egyptians developed their own writing system.  At first, it was made up of pictographs, but over time, Egyptians created symbols to represent sounds.  This complex system of pictures and sound symbols created a complex writing system called HIEROGLYPHICS.  Egyptian scribes wrote on papyrus.  Hieroglyphics were also carved onto stone walls and monuments.

11  Just like in Mesopotamia, extra food meant that not everyone was needed for farming. Other economic activities began to flourish, as did trade.  As Egypt traded with other parts of the world, they were exposed to other ways of life and ideas (Culture-spreads through trade)  As trade and farming increases, so does the need for an organized government.

12  Government was needed to – oversee construction projects, repairing dams and irrigation ditches, store and distribute grain and deal with conflicts over land ownership.  Over time, groups of villages merged to form small kingdoms.  Eventually, the weak kingdoms were conquered by the stronger ones.  By 4000 BCE, Egypt was made up of two large kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.

13  About 3100 BCE, a king of Upper Egypt named Narmer conquered Lower Egypt.  His actions UNIFIED (to bring together) all of Egypt under the rule of one king.  He is considered to be the first Pharaoh.  From 3100 BCE to 332 BCE, there were a total of 30 dynasties which ruled Egypt.(Dynasty= ruling families)  These dynasties are organized into three time periods. Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom.

14  Journals throughout History  Ancient Egypt-Constructing Civilization

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