2Objectives:Recognize Important Key Terms: Delta, Nile River, Pyramid, Sahara Desert, Kush, Cataracts, Silt, hieroglyphicsExplain how major physical characteristics, natural resources, climate and location have influenced settlements, interactions and economies of the ancient world.Analyze the relationship of physical geography to the development of ancient river valley civilizations.Identify some characteristics and important contributions of Ancient Egypt.
3The Nile River ValleyWhile other Empires were growing in Asia, two civilizations began to flourish along the Nile River Valley.One of these civilizations was Egypt in the North.The other, Kush, was located in the southern Nile River Valley.
4EgyptThe Egyptians called their land, KEMET, which means black land, after the soil.Egypt has a very hot, dry climate, so they were very dependent on the Nile for drinking, bathing and of course, watering crops.The Nile runs for over 4000 miles!(The longest river in the world)At its source, the Nile is actually two separate rivers. The Blue Nile (eastern Africa) and the White Nile (Central Africa)KEMET
5Protection for EgyptIn the North, there is a DELTA (fan shaped area of fertile marshland) This area makes it difficult for invaders.To the West, there is the Sahara Desert. This area helps to keep Egypt ISOLATED (separate from others)In the South, Egypt's Nile CATARACTS (waterfalls or rapids in a river) made it difficult for invaders to sail ships up the Nile to invade Egypt.
6The People of the RiverThe main advantage of the Nile River was that it flooded around the same time each year.Also, the flooding was less destructive than in other river valleys.When the Nile flooded in the summer, the floods left behind SILT.Egyptian farmers knew the cycle and were ready to plant their crops when the floods receded.
7Video Presentation Journals throughout History Ancient Egypt-Land of Abundance
8Farming in the Nile Farmers planted wheat, barley and flax. They also had many domesticated animals.Some tools that were used included the plow and the SHADOOF (bucket attached to a long pole)Egyptians also gathered PAPYRUS (reed plant) to weave rope, sandals, baskets and river rafts. They also used it to make paper.
10Egyptian WritingJust like in Mesopotamia, the Egyptians developed their own writing system.At first, it was made up of pictographs, but over time, Egyptians created symbols to represent sounds.This complex system of pictures and sound symbols created a complex writing system called HIEROGLYPHICS.Egyptian scribes wrote on papyrus.Hieroglyphics were also carved ontostone walls and monuments.
11Uniting EgyptJust like in Mesopotamia, extra food meant that not everyone was needed for farming. Other economic activities began to flourish, as did trade.As Egypt traded with other parts of the world, they were exposed to other ways of life and ideas (Culture-spreads through trade)As trade and farming increases, so does the need for an organized government.
12Uniting Egypt, continued Government was needed to – oversee construction projects, repairing dams and irrigation ditches, store and distribute grain and deal with conflicts over land ownership.Over time, groups of villages merged to form small kingdoms.Eventually, the weak kingdoms were conquered by the stronger ones.By 4000 BCE, Egypt was made up of two large kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.
13The First PharaohAbout 3100 BCE, a king of Upper Egypt named Narmer conquered Lower Egypt.His actions UNIFIED (to bring together) all of Egypt under the rule of one king.He is considered to be the first Pharaoh.From 3100 BCE to 332 BCE, there were a total of 30 dynasties which ruled Egypt.(Dynasty= ruling families)These dynasties are organized into three time periods. Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom.
14Video Presentation Journals throughout History Ancient Egypt-Constructing Civilization