Presentation on theme: "While signing the Constitution legend has it Ben Franklin had tears streaming down his face. GW’s chair had sun Rising or setting- rising!"— Presentation transcript:
1While signing the Constitution legend has it Ben Franklin had tears streaming down his face. GW’s chair had sunRising or setting- rising!
2Preamble, or intro, to Constitution lists 6 major goals of American govt. 1. To form a more perfect union2. To establish justice3. To insure domestic tranquility4. To provide for the common defense5. To promote the general welfare6. To secure the blessings of liberty
31.Form a more perfect union 2. Establish justice Framers felt states had to agree to operate as 1 country & cooperate on major issues.2. Establish justiceConst. provides a national system of courts to:Protect peoples’ rightsHear cases about violations of federal lawSettle disputes btwn. states.
43.Insure domestic tranquility Constitution provides a strong central govt. to keep peace among the people.4. Provide for the common defenseConstitution gives federal govt. power to maintain armed forces & protect the citizens.
55. Promote the general welfare Constitution provides ways for govt. to promote general well-being of the people.6. Secure the blessings of libertyConstitution guarantees people’s basic rights.For current & future generations
6Const rests on 7 major principles: (1) popular sovereignty, (2) republicanism,(3) limited government, (4) federalism,(5) separation of powers(6) checks and balances(7) individual rights.
7Popular sovereignty means “the authority of the people” or people rule U.S. govt. gets its power from the people.Under republicanism people choose their govt leaders.
8Limited govt. makes certain that govt Limited govt. makes certain that govt. only has powers the people grant/give it.Federalism is a system in which power to govern/rule is shared btwn. national govt. & states.
9Constitution defines 3 types of powers. Enumerated powers belong only to federal govt.Reserved powers are powers retained by states.Concurrent powers are powers shared by state & federal govts.
10First 3 articles of Const establish rules for 3 branches : Executive- PresidentLegislative- CongressJudicial- Supreme CourtTo keep 1 branch/person from becoming too powerful 3 branches ÷ powers/duties
11Framers established system of checks and balances- each branch of the govt can check/limit power of other branches.
12The Framers Were Geniuses Smart enough to know they weren’t the smartest ever & didn’t know everythingMade a process to amend or change Const.Gave Congress power to grow w/ timesOnly 27 amendments to Const. (counting 1st 10- Bill of Rights)
13The amendment process discourages frequent or minor changes to Const. An amendment can be proposed in 2 ways:by vote of 2/3 of both houses of Congressby 2/3 of state legislatures asking for a special convention on the amendment.
14·Principle of individual rights guaranteed by Bill of Rights (1st 10 amendments to Constitution)
15Since 1789 more than 9,000 amendments have been proposed! This makes it even more amazing that only 27 have been ratifiedOnly 17 since 1791Some of the Bill of Rights:1st amendment- freedom of speech, press,assembly, petition & religion2nd amendment- right to bare arms4th amendment- no illegal searches & seizures5th amendment- rights of the accused6th amendment- right to trial by jury
16Civil War Amendments Amendments 13-15 they happened right after Civil Warthey were created to help former slaves13 ended slavery14 guaranteed citizenship & Const. rights for African Americans15 right to vote for African American men
17Other Voting Amendments 19th amendment gave women vote in 1919!26th amendment set voting age to 18
18“Elastic clause” of Const “Elastic clause” of Const. mean that Congress has certain implied powers, powers not specifically defined in Const.Power to make all “necessary and proper” laws
19Power to regulate trade This has been necessary to change w/ the times Congress has used the “commerce clause” of Const. to expand its powers in a number of areas.Article 1 section 8 clause 3- Commerce ClausePower to regulate tradeThis has been necessary to change w/ the timesExamples: regulation of airline industry, radio & TV & nuclear energy.
20Constitution describes role & powers of president in general terms. Much of what president does is based on precedents or actions of previous presidentsWashington set up 1st Cabinet – group of advisorsEvery prez. since has done same- now there are 15 Cabinet departments
21Although not mentioned in Constitution, judicial review has become major power of judicial branch. Judicial review means to judge whether acts of Congress or prez. are constitutionalPhrase evolved from Article 3 section 2 which states Supreme Court has right to hear “all cases… arising under this Constitution”Marbury v. Madison- case where SC decided they had right to decide whether laws violated const.
22Article I outlines Congress Congress has 2 houses: House of Representatives (2 year terms)Senate (6 year terms)
23House of Reps has:435 voting members5 nonvoting delegatesDistrict of Columbia (Washington DC), Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, & Virgin Islands.# of reps from ea/state is determined by state’s population.
24Senate consists of 100 senators, 2 ea/state. Role of Congress is to make nation’s lawscontrol govt. spending.Congress appropriates, or sets aside, funds for govt.Govt. cannot spend any money unless Congress oks it
25Congress monitors executive branch. House of Representatives can impeach (bring formal charges against) any federal official it suspects of wrongdoing.Senate holds trials for those impeachedSenate has some important powers that House doesn’tratifies treaties (2/3 vote)confirms presidential appointments
26All members of Congress must represent their constituents, people of their home states & districts. LettersPhone callssPetitionsReelection
27Both houses use committees to evaluate proposed legislation (laws). Standing committees- permanent committees (ex: agriculture, education…)sub-committees- more specific
28Joint committees- members from both House & Senate conference committees- works out compromise when similar bills are proposed in House & SenateSometimes House & Senate form temporary committees to address special issues.select committees
291000s of bills (proposed laws) proposed each yr. Once bill is approved by House & Senate, it goes to prez. for approval.If bill is signed, it becomes law.If prez. vetoes bill, it goes back to Congress,Congress can override president’s vetoPretty rareNeeds 2/3 vote (67 in Senate/ 290 in House)
31orSource- Kids in the House-the office of the clerk
32Article II outlines executive branch Executive branch includes president,vice presidentvarious executive offices, departments& agencies.President is chief executive & responsible for carrying out nation’s laws.
33President is chief diplomat, directing foreign policy, appointing ambassadors, & negotiating treaties.w/British PM Brownw/French president Sarkozyw/German chancellor Merkel
34President is commander in chief. In this role, prez.can use military to intervene, or offer assistance in crises at home or around world.President cannot declare war; only Congress can declare war.appoints & removes top military officials
35As chief of state, prez. represents all Americans. The face world seesGreets foreign leadersVisits foreign countriesPresident serves as legislative leader by proposing laws to Congress.suggests new lawsveto
36CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) Independent agencies manage federal programs in many fields.CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)FCC (Federal Communications Commission)A govt. corporation is govt. agency that is run like a privately- owned businessPost officeAmtrak
3715 secretaries/ executive departments Executive Office of the President (EOP) consists of individuals & agencies that directly assist president.Cabinet consists of executive depts. responsible for ea/area of govt.15 secretaries/ executive departments
38Article III outlines Supreme Court & court system Does not describe duties of Supreme CourtHas developed from laws, through tradition, & as country’s needs & circumstances have changed.Federal court system is made up of:Supreme Courtdistrict courtsappeals courts
40District courts consider civil & criminal cases that come under federal, rather than state, authority.Civil- private citizen sues; claims against govt. & cases involving constitutional rights- $ is usually penalty if guiltyCriminal- crime; govt. brings charges – prison time if guiltyAppeals courts review district court decisions when losing side has asked for review of verdict
41Supreme Court hears & rules on cases that have been appealed to it. 9 justices- 1 Chief & 8 associate justiceshears approx. 120 of 4,000 cases/yr.majority wins, but both sides must give reasons for decisionmajority opiniondissenting opinionIn doing so, Court is political institution because it often determines national policy.
42Top row: (left to right): Stephen G Top row: (left to right): Stephen G. Breyer (Clinton), Clarence Thomas (Bush 41), Ruth Bader Ginsburg (Clinton), and Samuel A. Alito (Bush 43).Bottom row: (left to right): Anthony M. Kennedy (Reagan), John Paul Stevens (Ford), Chief Justice John G. Roberts (Bush 43), Antonin G. Scalia (Reagan) , and David H. Souter (Bush 41),
43Judicial review is Supreme Court’s power to examine laws & actions of local, state, & national govts & to cancel them.Supreme Court can also review presidential policiessettle disputesinterpret lawsprotect guaranteed rights
44Miranda v ArizonaErnesto Miranda was arrested, interrogated & confessedLater he said he didn’t know he had right to an attorney & didn’t have to speak to policeCase went to Supreme CourtDecided that people arrested needed to be made aware of their rights- Miranda rights
46Rights of American citizens fall into 3 broad categories: right to be protected from unfair actions of govt.to have = treatment under law,to have basic freedoms.Due process of law means that govt. must follow procedures established by law & guaranteed in Constitution.
47All Americans, regardless of race, religious beliefs, or political beliefs, have right to be treated same under law.Basic freedoms include freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, & right to petition (all 1st Amendment).
481st Amendment- allows citizens to criticize govt. , forbids govt 1st Amendment- allows citizens to criticize govt., forbids govt. from endorsing religion, & ensures citizens’ rights to practice religion they choose.9th Amendment- rights of Americans are not limited to those mentioned in Constitution.
49Americans must work to protect their rights. Govt. can establish laws to restrict certain standards to protect health, safety, security, & moral standards of a community.
50A citizen- person who owes loyalty to & is entitled to protection of state or nation. A person of foreign birth can become citizen through process of naturalization.Citizens of US are expected to carry out certain duties & responsibilities.Duties are things citizens are required to do by lawResponsibilities are things citizens should do
51Citizens’ duties include obeying law, paying taxes, defending nation, & serving on juries. Laws:help maintain orderprotect health, safety, & property of all citizensmake it possible for people to live together peacefully.
52Citizens are responsible for: Constitution guarantees all Americans right to trial by jury of their peers.Citizens are responsible for:voicing their opinions about govt. matterskeeping informed of their rightsrespecting diversityaccepting responsibility for their actionssupporting their families
53Voting is most important responsibility of U.S. citizens. Citizens can belong to special interest groups, who present arguments supporting or opposing bills that are up for discussion.Citizens can join a political party & help choose candidates to run for various political offices.U.S. citizens should respect rights of others w/whom they may disagree.