To form a more perfect union The states work together as one unified nation, not as separate nations. To establish justiceThe justice system requires that the law be applied fairly to every American. To ensure domestic tranquillity The government can ensure domestic tranquillity, or peace and order at home. To provide for the common defense To protect citizens against foreign attack, the national government can raise armies and navies. However, the military is under civilian, or nonmilitary, control. To promote the general welfare The national government promotes the general welfare, or the well-being of all its citizens. To secure the blessing of liberty A major goal of the Constitution is to protect the liberty, or freedom, of Americans. The Preamble to the US Constitution
The Legislative Branch Makes laws Lay & collect taxes Control Government spending CAN DECLARE WAR CONGRESS 2 houses House of Representatives Senate 435 voting members 5 nonvoting members Number is determined by states' population 25 yrs old 2 terms 100 Senators 2 from each state 30 yrs old 6 year terms/staggere d every 2 years Congress is a watchdog over the Executive Branch Congress is responsible for representing their CONSTITUENTS New Bills are introduced in Congress each year Standing Committees –in House & Senate- specialize in a specific topic Select Committees –temporary - deal with issues requiring special attention Joint Committee – both house meet on a specific issue Conference Committee – has a special function Kill the bill, Pigeon hole the bill or prepare it for consideration
The Executive Branch Chief Executive –President Chief Diplomat – foreign policy, appoints ambassadors, negotiates treaties Commander in Chief – of the armed forces, can use military to help or offer assistance in crisis, HE CANNOT DECLARE WAR, can send troops for 60 days to all parts of world but must notify Congress Chief of State – serves as symbolic role as representative of all Americans, receives foreign ambassadors or heads of state, bestows honors on Americans Legislative Leader – proposes laws to Congress, Gives State of the Union Address Chief Executive –President Chief Diplomat – foreign policy, appoints ambassadors, negotiates treaties Commander in Chief – of the armed forces, can use military to help or offer assistance in crisis, HE CANNOT DECLARE WAR, can send troops for 60 days to all parts of world but must notify Congress Chief of State – serves as symbolic role as representative of all Americans, receives foreign ambassadors or heads of state, bestows honors on Americans Legislative Leader – proposes laws to Congress, Gives State of the Union Address 14 executive departments Executive Office of the President Cabinet All help the President carry out & enforce the Nation’s laws 14 executive departments Executive Office of the President Cabinet All help the President carry out & enforce the Nation’s laws
The Judicial Branch Supreme Court – Article III of Constitution created it, 9 Justices (their main job is to hear and rule on cases) Appeals Courts – reviews district court decisions Can overturn verdict or order a retrial (14) District Courts – lowest level/criminal & civil cases (91) JUDICIAL REVIEW The Supreme Court’s power to examine laws and actions of local, state and National governments and to cancel them if they violate the Constitution JUDICIAL REVIEW The Supreme Court’s power to examine laws and actions of local, state and National governments and to cancel them if they violate the Constitution
Popular Sovereignty The principle that government gets its authority from the people, therefore people have a right to change or abolish their government. Limited Government The principle that government has only the powers that the Constitution gives it. Everyone, no matter how important, must obey the law. Separation of Powers The idea of limiting government power by dividing it among different branches of government. Checks and BalancesEach branch of government has power to check, or limit, actions of the other branches. FederalismThe principle of dividing power between the federal government and the states. Republicanism A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to carry out their will. Individual RightsIndividual rights include freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the right to trial by jury. Principles of the Constitution
ENUMERATED POWERS Regulate trade Coin money Provide and army/navy Conduct foreign affairs Set up federal courts CONCURRECT POWERS Enforce the laws Establish courts Collect taxes Borrow money Provide for the general welfare RESERVED POWERS Regulate trade in the state Establish local government systems Conduct elections Establish public school systems The Federal System National Government National & State Government State Government
6.People are guaranteed the right to a speedy and public trial by a fair jury. The accused have a right to know the charges against them and who is making the charges The Bill of Rights and Other Amendments 1.Safeguards individual rights—freedom of religion, speech, the press, the right to assemble peacefully, the right to petition the government to change its policies. 2.“A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” 3.Congress may not force citizens to put up troops in their homes. 4.Citizens are protected from unlawful searches of their homes and property. 5.People cannot be forced to incriminate, or give evidence against, themselves.
7.Provides for juries in civil (deals with $ over $20.00), or non criminal, trials. 8.Forbids excessive bail or fines and “cruel and unusual punishments.” 9.Citizens’ rights are not limited to those listed in the Constitution. 10.All powers not given to the national government or denied to the states are reserved for the states or for the people. 13.Abolished slavery. 14.Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves. 15.Declared that states may not deny the vote to any citizen on the basis of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” 19.Gave women the right to vote. POST CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS: