Presentation on theme: "CIVICS STANDARD ONE (a): Students will understand that governments have the power to make and enforce laws and regulations, levy taxes, conduct foreign."— Presentation transcript:
CIVICS STANDARD ONE (a): Students will understand that governments have the power to make and enforce laws and regulations, levy taxes, conduct foreign policy, and make war. CIVICS STANDARD ONE (b): Students will analyze the different functions of federal, state, and local governments in the United States and examine the reasons for the different organizational structures each level of government displays. LEARNING ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS (1)Why does a government have certain powers? (2) What different needs should be addressed by the different levels of government? (3) Has the idea of what is an appropriate power of government changed or remained the same over time?
I. Constitution A.Divided into three main parts: 1. Preamble (opening statement) Six Goals: to form a more perfect union to establish justice to ensure domestic tranquility to provide for the common defense to promote the general welfare to secure the blessing of liberty
2.Articles divided into seven sections 3. Amendments only 27 formal changes (amendments) have been made to the Constitution over the past 200 years
B. Seven Basic Principles of the Constitution 1. popular sovereignty 2.limited government has only powers that the Constitution gives it 3. separation of powers 4. checks and balances 5. federalism division of power between the federal government and the states 6. republicanism 7. individual rights
EXECUTIVE BRANCH A. Headed by the President 1. President’s Responsibilities: highest elected official carries out the nation’s laws directs foreign policy makes treaties with other nations appoints ambassadors Commander in Chief of the military can grant pardons can call special sessions of Congress makes speeches on national holidays welcomes foreign leaders to the United States gives medals to national heroes can serve a 4 year term can only serve a total of 2 terms (8 years total) 2. President’s Annual Salary $400,000 per year
JUDICIAL BRANCH A.Three Types of Courts in the U.S. 1.district court 2.court of appeal appeal – ask the decision made by a lower court to be reviewed by a higher court 3. Supreme Court 9 Justices (Judges) – 1 Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices President appoints the Justices, but Congress must approve Justices serve for life Justices have the power to interpret the Constitution court decisions are made by the majority (at least 5 Justices) Supreme Court is known as the “court of last resort”
II. Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship A. What is a citizen? 1.citizen: Person who owes loyalty to a particular nation and is entitled to all its rights and protection
2. To be a United States citizen, you must fulfill one of three requirements… You are born in the United States, or one of your parents is a citizen of the U.S. You were naturalized, that is, you have completed the official legal process for becoming a citizen. You were 18 or younger when your parents were naturalized. What is a citizen? (cont.)
3. immigrant a person who enters another country in order to settle there 4. resident alien non-citizen living in the country
B. Responsibilities of a Citizen 1.civic responsibilities: voting obeying the laws defending the nation serving on a jury serving the community being informed
III. Changing the Constitution A. Amendment Process 1. two ways: proposed by 2/3 of both the House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress) national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislature (never been used before)
B. Amendment Ratification 1. two ways: approved by the legislatures of ¾ of the states approved by special conventions in ¾ of the states
C. Bill of Rights 1.first 10 amendments to the Constitution protecting individual liberties (First Amendment) protecting against the abuse of power (Amendments Two through Four) protecting rights of the accused (Amendments Five Through Eight)
D. Later Amendments 1. Civil War Amendments 13 th – abolished slavery 14 th – guaranteed citizenship to former slaves 15 th – states may not deny the right to vote to any citizen on the basis of race, color, or previous conditions of servitude
2. Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote 3. Twenty-Sixth Amendment lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18
IV. State and Local Governments A. State Constitutions 1.federal government: deals with national issues 2.state government: power to meet more local needs. each of the 50 states has a constitution that sets forth the principles and framework of its government.
State Constitutions (cont.) all states must conform to the United States Constitution state constitutions tend to be longer than United States Constitution amendments are proposed by the state legislature and approved by the people in an election
State Constitutions (cont.) 3. constitutional initiative: sponsors of an amendment gather signatures on a petition. when the required number of signatures is attained, the petition goes to the legislature or to the voters for approval with the approval of the legislature or The people, the state may call a constitutional convention the new constitution is then submitted to the people.
STATELOCAL BOTH operate state parks in charge of infrastructures license professionals maintain law and order provide public health and welfare programs firefighters police garbage collection provide libraries, parks, cultural, and recreational facilities conduct safety inspections of buildings and restaurants education maintenance highways and roads